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Midterm study sheet definitions.docx

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ANTH 100
Jennifer Liu

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ANTH 102 Study Guide Chapter 1: Anthropology and the Study of Culture agency: the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will even within dominating structures. applied anthropology: the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals. archaeology or prehistory: the study of past human cultures through their material remains. biological anthropology or physical anthropology: the study of humans as biological organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation. class: a way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth and exhibited in terms of lifestyle. cultural anthropology or social anthropology: the study of living peoples and their cultures, including variation and change. cultural constructionism: a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by learning. cultural materialism: a theoretical position that takes material features of life, such as the environment, natural resources, and mode of livelihood, as the bases for explaining social organization and ideology. cultural relativism: the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and not judged by the standards of another culture. culture: people’s learned and shared behavior and beliefs. ethnicity: a shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language, or culture. ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture. functionalism: the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole. gender: culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males, females, or blended genders. globalization: increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western capitalism and other forms that increasingly affect all world cultures. holism: the perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be fully understood without paying attention to their different components, including economics, social organization, and ideology. indigenous people: groups who have a long-standing connection with their home territory that predates colonial or outside societies. interpretive anthropology or interpretivism: the view that cultures are best understood by studying what people think about, their ideas, and the meanings that are important to them. 1 linguistic anthropology: the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change. localization: the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new. microculture: a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture. “race”: a classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogeneous and largely superficial biological traits such as skin color or hair characteristics. symbol: an object, word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something else; most symbols are arbitrary. Chapter 2: Researching Culture collaborative research: an approach to learning about culture that involves anthropologists working with members of the study population as partners and participants rather than as “subjects.” deductive approach (to research): a research method that involves posing a research question or hypothesis, gathering data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis. emic: insiders’ perceptions and categories, and their explanations for why they do what they do. ethnography: a firsthand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation. etic: an analytical framework used by outside analysts in studying culture. fieldwork: research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found. indigenous knowledge (IK): local understanding of the environment, climate, plants, animals, and making a living inductive approach (to research): a research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied. informed consent: an aspect of fieldwork ethics requiring that the researcher inform the research participants of the intent, scope, and possible effects of the study and seek their consent to be in the study. interview: a research technique that involves gathering verbal data through questions or guided conversation between at least two people. kula: a trading network, linking many of the Trobriand Islands, in which men have long- standing partnerships for the exchange of everyday goods, such as food, as well as highly valued necklaces and armlets. multisited research: fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the culture of dispersed members of the culture or the relationships among different levels of culture. participant observation: basic fieldwork method in cultural anthropology that involves 2 living in a culture for a long time while gathering data. qualitative data: non-numeric information. quantitative data: numeric information. questionnaire: a formal research instrument containing a pre-set series of questions that the anthropologist asks in a face-to-face setting, by mail, or by email. rapport: a trusting relationship between the researcher and the study population. toponymy: the naming of places. Chapter 3: Economic Systems agriculture: a mode of livelihood that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer. balanced exchange: a system of transfers in which the goal is either immediate or eventual equality in value. consumerism: a mode of consumption in which people’s demands are many and infinite and the means of satisfying them are insufficient and become depleted in the effort to satisfy these demands. expected reciprocity: an exchange of approximately equally valued goods or services, usually between people roughly equal in social status. extensive strategy: a form of livelihood involving temporary use of large areas of land and a high degree of spatial mobility. foraging: obtaining food available in nature through gathering, hunting, or scavenging. generalized reciprocity: exchange involving the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return. horticulture: a mode of livelihood based on growing domesticated crops in gardens, using simple hand tools. industrialism/informatics: a mode of livelihood in which goods are produced through mass employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation and movement of information through electronic media. intensive strategy: a form of livelihood that involves continuous use of the same land and resources. market exchange: the buying and selling of commodities under competitive conditions in which the forces of supply and demand determine value; a form of unbalanced exchange. minimalism: a mode of consumption that emphasizes simplicity, is characterized by few consumer demands, and involves an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them. mode of consumption: the dominant pattern, in a culture, of using things up or spending resources in order to satisfy demands. mode of exchange: the dominant pattern, in a culture, of transferring goods, services, and other items between and among people and groups. mode of livelihood: the dominant way of making a living in a culture. 3 pastoralism: a mode of livelihood based on keeping domesticated animals and using their products, such as meat and milk, for most of the diet. potlatch: a grand feast of Pacific Northwest cultures in which guests are invited to eat and to receive gifts from the hosts. pure gift: something given with no expectation or thought of a return. unbalanced exchange: a system of transfers in which one party seeks to make a profit. use rights: a system of property relations in which a person or group has socially recognized priority in access to particular resources such as gathering, hunting, and fishing areas and water holes. Chapter 4: Reproduction and Human Development adolescence: a culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty until adulthood that is recognized in some, but not all cultures. am
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