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ANTH100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Genetic Drift, Convergent Evolution, Sickle-Cell Disease


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH100
Professor
Dana
Study Guide
Final

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Anthropology 101
Sub-Disciplines of Anthropology: Cultural, Physical, Archaeology, Linguistic Anthropology
Evolution: change in genetics of a population from 1 generation to the next
Anthropology: human culture + evolutionary aspects of human biology
Scientific Method: research where a problem is identified and hypothesis is tested
Biocultural Evolution: biology makes culture + biological evolution, human evolution
Culture: human adaptation, technology, traditions, language, religion + social roles
Species: A group of organisms that interbreed to produce fertile offspring
Society: group of people who share a common culture
Enculturation: process where individuals learn values/beliefs from family, society
Adaptation: response of populations to the environment
Enlightenment: 18th Century philosophical movement in Western Europe
Cultural Anthropology: modern living people began in enlightenment, sociopolitical
*Urban Anthropology: ethnographic studies of inner cities
*Medical Anthropology: relationship between culture and health/disease
*Applied Anthropology: practical applications, activities of archaeologists
Ethnographic: study of non-western societies
*Physical Anthropology: biological anthropology
-study of human biology in evolution + relationship between biology + culture
-curiosity among scientists by mechanisms which modern species come to be
(sparked over Charles Darwin on The Origin of Species
Anthropometry: measurement of human body parts (osteologists identify variation)
Osteology: study of human skeleton
Bioarachaelogy: study of skeletal remains from archeological sites
Genetics: study of gene structure + inheritance of traits from offspring
Molecular Anthropologists: evolutionary relationship between humans + primates
Primatology: study of biology + behavior of primates
Paleopathology: investigates prevalence of trauma, disease + deficiencies in bones
*Forensic Anthropology: applied anthropological techniques in legal issues, analysis
Archaeology: past anthropology, study of human past through analysis of remains
Artifacts: materials made for use by hominins
Material Culture: use for human activities (tools, art, structures)
Purpose: Lifeways, Chronology, Explain
Archaeologists ARE NOT Paleontologists (study dinosaurs)
*Classic Archaeologists: study of Mediterranean civilizations (Roman and Greek)
*Anthropological Archaeology: application of archaeological methods

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Archaeological Record: earliest identifiable hominin tools + sites where they’re deposited
Prehistory: millions of years between bipedal hominins and written records
Historical Archaeologists: study past societies where a written record also exists
Ethnoarchaeologists: study modern people to explain archaeological records
Antiquarian: interest between objects + texts of the past (explain Natives + record)
-Thomas Jefferson conducted earliest archaeological excavations in North America
Stratigraphic: depositional levels of an archaeological site
Archaeometry: applying natural/physical sciences to the investigation of archaeological records
Public Archaeology: conducted for the public good as part of the cultural management
GIS- Geographical Information System
CRM- Cultural Resource Management: uses archaeological expertise, prehistory + illustrators
Experimental Archaeology: researches replicate ancient techniques to understand the past
Archaeology Goals: 1) Reconstruct culture history, chronologies of history
2) Describe ancient lifeways to understand patterns + culture change
Linguistic Anthropology: study of human speech/language origin
-our perceptions of language/dialect, geographical origins + identity
-language acquisition in infants + its implications of speech
The Scientific Method:
Science: understanding phenomena through observation, generalization, verification
Empirical: gaining information through explicit techniques
Quantitatively: measurements of quantity: size, number, capacity
Scientific Testing: Statement/explanation that hasn’t been falsified, supported by hypothesis
1. Research
2. Hypothesis
3. Test: Empirical, Data, Verify
4. Theory
Ethnocentric: biased perspective, other cultures seen as inferior to own culture
Culture: learned behaviors (traditions, language, technology, religion) passed down
Social Norms: behavior is considered normal to members in society
Mores: beliefs in a culture + reinforced by influence of behavior
Enculturation: people learn requirements of culture that are appropriate
Biocultural Approach: culture/biology influences our characteristics + changes over time
Biocultural Evolution: humans depend on culture
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Principles of Archaeology:
*Relative Dating: close approx. age of something
*Chronometric (Absolute) Dating: trends to help recognize traits based on characteristics
William Stulkey: worked on Stonehenge, saw soil had layers older layers are deeper
*Principle of Superstition: Study of Stratigraphy (layers elsewhere means same time period)
Typology: study of these types of artifacts from different layers
Wilfred Libby: radio carbon dating inventor, life is carbon based, isotope makes 02
- Half life is 57, 300 years (how old an artifact is)
Protohominins: earliest members of hominin lineage
Multidisciplinary: research that involves experts from several scientific fields
Taphonomy: how bones and other material came to be buried in the earth + preserved as fossils
Goals of Archaeology: 1) Order to archaeological record
2) Reconstruct Lifeways (used artifacts to interact)
3) How/Why past happened the way it did
4) Interpreting Cognitive/Symbolic aspects of past societies
-Seriation and typology BEFORE radio carbon dating
Site Survey: process of discovering location of archaeological sites
Features: products of human activity that cannot be removed from site (i.e. burials)
Ecofacts: natural materials that give environmental information about a site
Contexts: spatial and temporal associations of artifacts
Primary Context: not be disturbed since originally deposited
Secondary Context: has been disturbed and redeposited
Ethnoarchaeology: gain insights to the past by studying contemporary people
Dating Methods
Relative Dating- order of events
Stratigraphy: superpositioning of strata
Biostratigraphy: estimates modifications of evolving lineage of species
Cross-Dating: shared materials remains from an undated context with one near its age
Seriation: orders artifacts from different sites into series bases on presence/absence
Chronometric Dating- absolute measure of age
Potassium-Argon: decay of potassium isotope (volcanoes)
Argon- Argon: similar to potassium, used to validate it
Fission Tract Dating: fission of atoms, used to validate potassium
Paleomagneticism: shifts in earths geomagnetic pole, magnetic flow switches
Radio Carbon Dating: measures 14C/12C in organic materials
Thermoluminsence: measures accumulated radiation
Dendrochronology: tree ring dating, used to correct problems of radiocarbon dating
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