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BIOL150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Buoyancy, Xylem, Cactus

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Rebecca Rooney
Study Guide

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BIOL 150 Exam Review
Chapter 1
Science is the systematic testing of hypotheses to build theory.
- Deductive reasoning: general premises to make specific predictions (if organisms are composed
of cells, then humans must be composed of cells as well)
KEY: Hypotheses can be about anything, so long as they are falsifiable. AIM TO DISPROVE OUR
Information/Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Test of Hypothesis
If hypothesis cannot be falsified, it does not prove that hypothesis.
KEY: Nature is variable. Biological Variation is key to evolution by natural selection.
Variation indicates that multiple measurements must be taken. Observing the variation data we can
describe the central tendency (Average), and the variation (range).
Two ways hypothesis can be wrong:
- Hypothesis can be true but no supporting evidence
- Hypothesis could be false but you found supporting evidence.
Data gathered is evidence. This evidence either supports or contradicts ones hypothesis.
Types of DATA:
Categorical/Qualitative Data
- Nominal: blonde, brunette, red head
- Ordinal: small, medium, large
- Binary: Present or absent
- Discrete (integers); Numbers of seeds per flower, number of species in a plot
- Continuous (resolution limited by measurement tools); Biomass, Landscape.
Types of data collected limits the hypothesis type you can test and the type of analysis you can perform.
Theory is more defined than a single hypothesis and supported by a larger amount of evidence.
Relationships include (Physical environment):
- Members of the same species (INTRAspecific)
- Members of other species (INTERspecific)
Environmental Factors:
- Resources (consumed)
- Conditions (not consumed)
- Hazards (negative)
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1. Everything is connected to everything else
2. Everything must go somewhere energy, waste products, ect.
3. Nature knows best systems typically find their own equilibrium
4. There is no such thing as a free lunch (Everything costs something)
Ecology is an INTERDISIPLINARY Science (combines two or more fields of academic studies)
**Ecology studies predominantly focus on the whole organism and higher levels, while recognizing sub
organismal processes modify (often markedly so) higher level interactions we are studying.
Organismal Ecology: What are morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow
individual organism to live and reproduce successfully in their environment? E.g. Specialization
Population Ecology:
- Population: group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same area at the same
Community Ecology focuses on the studies of not one species but a group of different species. E.g.
effects of invasive species.
Ecosystem Ecology focuses not only on the biotic factors but abiotic factors as well.
Chapter 2: Climate
What affects the climate the most is energy, specifically from the sun, as sunlight fall unevenly onto
Earth as the Earth is spherical. **Equator has the most intense sunlight because of a 90 degree angle.
**We are closest to the sun during JUNE 21st as the Northern Hemisphere faces the sun at the most
direct angle
Capacity of air to hold moisture increases with temperature.
- As air cool, it undergoes condensation
- As air warms, it undergoes evaporation.
Cooling air forces precipitation, while warming air increases evaporation and transpiration.
*Saturation vapor pressure is TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT
Absolute humidity: amount of water vapor in the air
The Polar cell is the air circulation that occurs at the North Pole. Every direction when air is in the north
pole, leads to the south. As the air travels south, it begins too warm and rise up, moving back to the
North pole, cooling it down as it moves towards the North. The most north circulation cell is known as
the polar cell. The cell directly south of it is called the Ferrel cell. The last cell which rises at the equator
are the Hadley cells.
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**Air movement on Earth creates zones of high pressure and low pressure.
- Where air is rising (warm), you experience low pressure
- Where air is sinking (cool), you experience high pressure
Because the Earth spins, the air movement does not go directly north or south, but rather at an angle.
We call these PREVAILING winds.
Oceans currents: driven by winds
- Equatorial is warm, polar is cold
- When current hits coast it splits creating gyres
If Earth were uniform we would have continuous belts of pressure, temperature and precipitation.
Regional climate effects are caused by mountains and oceans.
- RAIN SHADOW is when mountain ranges tend to produce extremes in precipitation (Ex:
- Oceans MODERATE temperature, absorb heat from the atmosphere in summer and releases
heat to the atmosphere in winter.
Topography and the presence of water bodies near the coast or just large bodies of water, have an
effect on the climate.
In the northern hemisphere, the northern slope of mountains would get more direct sunlight, whereas
the southern slope of mountains would be more dry with less sunlight. This would be vice versa in the
Southern Hemisphere.
Transpiration is evaporation through vegetation.
Evapotranspiration: water channeled from roots out leaf stoma.
Arrhenius (1896) greenhouse gasses make the planet warn enough to inhabit. Traps long wave radition
emitted by Earth.
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