PSYCH101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Short-Term Memory, Richard Shiffrin, Sensory Memory
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Memory 26: Introduction to Memory
The Phenomenon of Memory
Memory – The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Studying Memory: Information Procession Models
Encoding – The processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting
Storage – The retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval – The process of getting information out of memory storage
- To remember any event, we must:
oGet information into our brain (Encoding)
oRetain that information (Storage)
oGet it back out (Retrieval)
Sensory Memory – The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory
Short-term Memory – Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits
of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term Memory – The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory
system, includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
- Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed that we form memories in three stages:
1. We first record to be remembered information as a fleeting Sensory Memory
2. From there, we process information into a short term memory bin, where we
encode it through rehearsal
3. Finally, information moves
into long term memory for
Working Memory – Newer understanding
of short term memory that focuses on
conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, ad of
information retrieved from long term memory.
Encoding: Getting Information In
Modified three stage processing model of memory
Automatic Processing – Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time,
and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
- Without conscious effort you automatically process information about
oSpace. While studying, you often encode the place on a page where certain
materials appears; later, whens struggling to recall that information, you may
visualize its location.
oTime. While going about your day, you unintentionally note the sequence of the
days events. Later, when you realize you’ve left your coat somewhere, you can
recreate that sequence and retrace your steps.
oFrequency. You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen, thus
enabling you to realize “this is the third time I’ve run into her today”.
-Effortful Processing – Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
oProduces durable and accessible memories
-Rehearsal – The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in
consciousness or to encode it for storage.
-Spacing effect – The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term
retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
oMassed practice (Cramming) can produce speedy short term learning and
feelings of confidence.
oDistributed study time produces better long term recall.
-Serial position effect – Our tendency to recall best the last and first item in a list.
oRecency effect – The last items are still in working memory, people briefly recall
them especially quickly and well.
oPrimacy effect – After they shift their attention from the last items – their recall is
best for the first items.
Levels of Processing
-Visual Encoding – The encoding of picture images
-Acoustic Encoding – The encoding of sound, epically the sound of words
oEnhances the memorability of seeming truth of rhyming aphorisms
-Semantic Encoding – The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
oProduces better recognition of it at a later time than does shallow processing
- The amount remembered depends both on the time spent learning and on your making it
- Information deemed “relevant to me” is processed more deeply and remains more
-Imagery – Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when
combined with semantic encoding.
- Our memory of an experience is often coloured by its best or worst moment
oThe best moment for pleasure or joy
oThe worst moment of pain and frustration
-Rosy retrospection – Recalling the high points while forgetting the mundane