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PSYCH312 Final: Psych 312 Glossary 1 lecture

Course Code
Ernie Mac Kinnon
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Module Presentation Slides Terms
Module 1History of
6, 7 Learning Disability
-LD refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant
difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing,
reasoning, or mathematical abilities. LD are intrinsic to the individual and
are presumed to be due to some sort of CNS dysfunction.
9 Public Law 94-142
-LD of children labeled if the child did not achieve in school (in
correspondence to his/her age), exhibited a severe discrepancy between
achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas
(oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic
reading skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation, or
mathematics reasoning).
Various Aptitude
and Achievement
4Age Equivalent Scores (AE)
-AE and GE scores indicate the level of growth or development a child has
reached. The tests are administered to large representative samples
whose scores provide the standards or norms for aptitude or achievement
(standards to which everyone else is subsequently compared). The
problem with AE, GE and PR scores is that they are all ordinal scores
(ranks) so they tell where someone stands with respect to others; however,
they do not tell how much better or worse someone is (not possible to
determine how severe a discrepancy may be).
5 Grade Equivalent Scores (GE)
6 Percentile Ranks (PR)
-PR indicates the percentage of the normative or standardization group
that is below an individual’s percentile rank score.
7-11 Standard Scores (SS)
-SS indicates the number of standard units above or below the mean that
an individual’s score is. It uses the SD of the distribution of scores around
the mean to show how far an individual’s score differs from the mean. It
tells us how much better one score is compared to another, and it is used
in computing aptitude-achievement discrepancies (uses 2 SD between
aptitude (APT) and achievement (ACH) as indicating the presence of a
severe discrepancy).
15-16 Severe Discrepancy between Aptitude and Achievement
-The Federal definition states that the child with LD has severe
discrepancy between achievement (what the student has learned or
achieved) and intellectual ability (student’s potential for learning) in one or
more of seven areas. To determine if discrepancy exists, one must 1.
Determine student’s potential for learning, 2. Student’s current
achievement level, 3. Degree of discrepancy between the student’s
potential for learning and the actual achievement level.
15-16 Reliability of Difference Scores
-In order to compare scores, both aptitude and achievement tests should
be normed on the same representative sample of children. Measure of
reliability is associated with each test score (compute reliability of
difference scores by subtracting one score from another). Reliability of
difference scores is considerably less than the reliability of individual
scores. The decision of how great a difference or how severe the
discrepancy must be between aptitude and achievement may lead to
selection bias.
17 IDEA 2004, 2006
-IDEA-2004 defines LD as a disorder in one or more of the basic
psychological processes (memory, auditory perception, visual perception,
oral language, and thinking). The individual has difficulty in learning
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(including speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics) and that
the difficulty is not primarily due to other causes (visual/hearing
impairments; motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disturbance;
or economic environmental, or cultural disadvantage. Identification of a LD
must not require a demonstration of a severe discrepancy between APT
and ACH. It offers all students with disabilities a free, appropriate public
education, including preschool, elementary school, or secondary school
instruction (special education and related services are provided at public
expense).It requires that each public school child who receives special
education and related services must have an IEP (an individualized written
statement for each child with a disability).
18 Response to Intervention (RTI)
-RTI is a new procedure for teaching all students (including students in
general education classes, students who are at-risk for school failure, and
students with suspected disabilities). It is a prevention model to limit or
prevent academic failure by providing evidence-based, age-
appropriate teaching instruction for all students in general education. It
provides for increasing intensity levels of support for those students who
do not respond adequately to the instruction which consists of three tiers
(each representing a level of intervention/instruction), in which the model
proposes that if a student responds well to the evidence-based
interventions at Tier 1, the student does not have a disability. If they do not
respond well at Tier 1, they receive more intensive instruction at Tier 2, and
if they do not respond well to Tier 2, they receive even more highly intense
instructions at Tier 3 (in smaller groups or individually with monitoring). If
they do not respond well to Tier 3, then they may be considered for an
evaluation for special education.
19, 20 LDAO definition of LD
-LDAO focuses on impairments in psychological processes related to
learning in combination with otherwise average thinking or reasoning skills,
unexpected low academic achievement, and average or above average
achievement attained by a child only at the expense of unrealistically high
levels of effort or intensive educational support.
Module 2Tests 5-9 Test Assumptions
-The tester is adequately trained (elicit effective responses from the client;
administering the test properly and recording responses and score the
test accurately), the sample of behavior elicited in the test situation is
adequate in amount and representative of the domain being sampled,
assumed that client has been exposed to a comparable but not necessarily
identical culture, error will be present in any measurement obtained (i.e.
SE of measurement and how confident we are), and only present
behavior is observed and future behavior can only be inferred.
11, 12 Test Retest Consistency Reliability
-Test-retest consistency refers to the stability in scores over time. It is
determined by giving the test to a large group, and then giving it to the
same group on another occasion. It is the relative standing of individuals (if
the individuals receive similar scores on the two test occasions, the test is
consistent. The test scores of first and second attempt are correlated to
calculate how reliable a test is (called reliability coefficient). The reliability
coefficient ranges from -1 to +1 (+1 being perfectly reliable-positive
correlation, -1 means perfectly reliable-negative correlation, and 0 being no
13 Internal Consistency Reliability
-Refers to the extent that the items in a test measures the same thing. If
the items on a test measure different things, the test has low internal
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