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University of British Columbia
BIOL 121
Brett Couch

Haploid Number (N): The number of kinds of chromosomes Ploidy: The number of copies of each kind of chromosomes • Haploid (1N): one copy of each kind of chromosome • Diploid (2N): two copies of each kind of chromosome • Polyploid : more than two copies of each kind of chromosome [eg. triploid (3N), tetraploid (4N) etc.] Gene: A DNA sequence or sequences encoding a functional product Mutations: A change in the DNA sequence of gene that differs from the most common, normal or wild-type. A mutation can alter an organism’s phenotype if the change in the DNA sequence alters the protein sequence. Mutants in which gene function is completely lost are called: knock- out mutants, null mutants or loss-of-function mutants • G – First Gap 1 Cell Growth • S – DNA synthesis Chromosomes are copied • G2– Second Gap Preparation for division • M – Mitosis Cell Divides • Chromosomes can be viewed using a microscope • Chromosomes are easily visible during Metaphase • Chromosomes are viewed in cells halted at metaphase At this stage, all chromosomes have been copied!!!! • Genes are linearly arranged along chromosomes.When a chromosome is copied, the copy will contain the same alleles for each gene in the same order • Heterozygous: adh,ADH Homozygous: adh,adh Why Are the Tropics Warm and the Poles Cold? • Areas of the world are warm if they receive a large amount of sunlight per unit area; they are cold if they receive a small amount of sunlight per unit area. • Earth’s shape dictates that regions at or near the equator receive more sunlight per unit area than regions that are closer to the poles 
 Why Are the Tropics Wet? • Areas along the equator receive the most moisture; locations at about 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator are among the driest on Earth. • A major cycle in global air circulation, called a Hadley cell, is responsible for this patternAir heated by the strong sunlight along the equator expands and rises. Warm air can hold a great deal of moisture because warm water molecules tend to stay in vapor form instead of condensing into droplets.
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