Learning expectations for BIOL 131. Chapters 13, Brain
You should be able to:
• Place the brain with respect to the nervous system (where is it
and to what does it connect).
- Part of CNS contained in cranium, control centre, cranial
nerves part of PNS, arise from brain/brainstem
• Know the names and basic roles of the parts of the brain:
brainstem, cerebrum. Cerebellum, diencephalon (thalamus and
NOTE: I made a mistake when I said diencephalon = midbrain.
The developing embryonic brain has a forebrain, a midbrain and
a hindbrain region. The diencephalon is part of the forebrain but
BECAUSE IT’S IN THE MIDDLE of the adult brain I often say
“midbrain” with out using my “forebrain“.
- Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain, integration of
- Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion, posture,
- Cerebrum: conscious thought, control
Diencephalon: thalamus(influences mood),
hypothalamus(maintains homeostasis), subthalamus(nerve
tracts/nuclei), epithalamus(nuclei responding to olfactory
• Differentiate between spinal and cranial nerves.
• State where the nervous system and neural crest cells originate
in the embryo.
- neural plate forms ectoderm
- neural folds form as parallel ridges along embryo, midline
depression becomes neural groove
- neural crest cells break away from crest of neural folds, crest
cells give rise to sensory/autonomic neurons in PNS,
melanocytes, facial bones, dentin in teeth
- neural folds meet at midline to form neural tube, becomes
• Be able to locate major brain structures on a diagram.
• Know the locations and roles of all of the parts of the brainstem.
- Medulla oblongada: regulates heart rate, bv diameter,
respiration, swallowing, vomiting (pyramids: descending
nerve tracts, fibers dessucate/each half of the brain controls
opposite side of body, olives: rounded nuclei control balance,
- Pons: sleep centre, respiratory centre coordinates with centre in medulla
- Midbrain: lost of nuclei, some tracts
• Define “reticular formation” and state what it does.
- Group of nuclei scattered throughout brain stem, controls
cyclis activity cycles (sleep-wake)
• Describe the cerebellum, noting features and their roles.
- Contains groups of neuro axons that communicate with other
parts of brain, contains gray/white matter to connect to
eachother/brain stem and spinal cord, folded cortex (white
matter resembling tree: arbor vitae)
- Purkinje cells: largest in CNS, receives 200000synapses,
- Balance, eye movements, muscle memory, poster, locomotion
• Describe the roles of the pineal gland, the thalamus and the
- Pineal gland: influences sleepiness, regulates biological clock,
onset of puberty
- Thalamus gland: motor function, mood modification, emotion
- Hypothalamus: olfactory reflexes, emotional responses to
odors, controls endocrine system, efferent fibers to brainstem
control swallowing/shivering, regulates mood, sexual
• Describe the cerebellum, including the lobes and their functions,