1. 13 Brain.doc

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KIN 190
Blythe Nielson

Learning expectations for BIOL 131. Chapters 13, Brain You should be able to: • Place the brain with respect to the nervous system (where is it and to what does it connect). - Part of CNS contained in cranium, control centre, cranial nerves part of PNS, arise from brain/brainstem • Know the names and basic roles of the parts of the brain: brainstem, cerebrum. Cerebellum, diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus). NOTE: I made a mistake when I said diencephalon = midbrain. Oops. The developing embryonic brain has a forebrain, a midbrain and a hindbrain region. The diencephalon is part of the forebrain but BECAUSE IT’S IN THE MIDDLE of the adult brain I often say “midbrain” with out using my “forebrain“. - Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain, integration of survival reflexes - Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion, posture, balance - Cerebrum: conscious thought, control Diencephalon: thalamus(influences mood), hypothalamus(maintains homeostasis), subthalamus(nerve tracts/nuclei), epithalamus(nuclei responding to olfactory stimulation) • Differentiate between spinal and cranial nerves. - • State where the nervous system and neural crest cells originate in the embryo. - neural plate forms ectoderm - neural folds form as parallel ridges along embryo, midline depression becomes neural groove - neural crest cells break away from crest of neural folds, crest cells give rise to sensory/autonomic neurons in PNS, melanocytes, facial bones, dentin in teeth - neural folds meet at midline to form neural tube, becomes brain/spinal cord • Be able to locate major brain structures on a diagram. • Know the locations and roles of all of the parts of the brainstem. - Medulla oblongada: regulates heart rate, bv diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomiting (pyramids: descending nerve tracts, fibers dessucate/each half of the brain controls opposite side of body, olives: rounded nuclei control balance, coordination) - Pons: sleep centre, respiratory centre coordinates with centre in medulla - Midbrain: lost of nuclei, some tracts • Define “reticular formation” and state what it does. - Group of nuclei scattered throughout brain stem, controls cyclis activity cycles (sleep-wake) • Describe the cerebellum, noting features and their roles. - Contains groups of neuro axons that communicate with other parts of brain, contains gray/white matter to connect to eachother/brain stem and spinal cord, folded cortex (white matter resembling tree: arbor vitae) - Purkinje cells: largest in CNS, receives 200000synapses, inhibitory - Balance, eye movements, muscle memory, poster, locomotion • Describe the roles of the pineal gland, the thalamus and the hypothalamus. - Pineal gland: influences sleepiness, regulates biological clock, onset of puberty - Thalamus gland: motor function, mood modification, emotion regulation - Hypothalamus: olfactory reflexes, emotional responses to odors, controls endocrine system, efferent fibers to brainstem control swallowing/shivering, regulates mood, sexual pleasure, etc. • Describe the cerebellum, including the lobes and their functions, connections, regi
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