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Exam One Review Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Definitions Charles Wright Mills Peter Berger Social Imagination Five Social Factors: That define individuals Origins of Sociology The scientific revolution Auguste Comte Positivism Anti-Positivism Quantitat

Course Code
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey
Study Guide

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Exam One Review:
Key Terms:
Achieved Status: Attributes developed throughout life as a result of effort and skill.
(E.g. course grades.)
Actions: For Talcott Parsons, the result of an active an inventive process.
Adaptation: The social system must be able to gather and distribute sufficient
resources and adjust to changes in the environment.
Alienation: Marxist concept to describe the process by which workers lack
connection to what they produce and become separated from themselves and other
Anomie: Emile Durkheim’s term for a state of normlessness that results from the
lack of clear goals and may ultimately result in higher suicide rates.
Anti-positivism: A theoretical approach that considers knowledge and
understanding to be the result of human subjectivity.
Ascribed Status: Attributes (advantages and disadvantages) assigned at birth (e.g.
Base: The material and economic foundation for society, made up of the forces of
production and the relations of production.
Behaviors: For Talcott Parsons, the almost mechanical responses to specific stimuli.
Causality: Relationship in which one variable causes a change in another variable.
Class Consciousness: Recognition of domination and oppression and collective
action to address it.
Collective Conscience: Emile Durkheim’s concept highlighting the totality of a
society’s beliefs and sentiments.
Colonialism: The concrete and ideological effects of imperialism within colonized
Correlation: A measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other.
Counterculture: A type of subculture that strongly opposes the widely held cultural
patterns of the larger population.
Culture: A complex collection of values, beliefs, behaviors and material objects
shared by a group and passed on from one generation to the next.
Cultural adaptation: The process by which environmental pressures are addressed
through changes in practices, traditions, and behaviors.
Cultural Universals: Common cultural features found in all societies.
Culture Shock: The feeling of disorientation, alienation, depression, and loneliness
experienced when entering a culture very different then one’s own.
Cultural Relativism: Appreciation that all cultures have intrinsic worth and should
be evaluated and understood on their own terms.
Dialectics: Hegel’s view of society as the result of oppositions, contradictions, and
tensions from which new ideas and social change can emerge.
Diffusion: Occurs when cultural items or practices are transmitted from one group
to another.
Discourse: A system of meaning that governs how we speak about a particular
thing or issue.

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Discovery: Occurs when something previously unrecognized or understood is
found to have social or cultural applications.
Disembedding mechanism: A mechanism that aids in shifting social relations from
local to global context.
Discipline: The means by which we become motivated to produce realities.
Ethnocentricism: The tendency to view one’s culture as superior to all others.
Evolution: The biological process by which genetic mutations are selected for, and
against, through environmental pressures.
Exploitation: The difference between what workers are paid and the wealth they
create for the owner.
Extra-local social relations: Relations that extend beyond the local, immediate
False consciousness: Belief in and support of the system that oppresses you.
Forces of Production: The physical and intellectual resources a society has to make
a living.
Formal Sociology: Simmel’s theory that argues that different human interactions,
once isolated from their content, can be similar in form.
Folkways: Informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving.
Goal Attainment: The system needs to establish clear goals and priorities.
Globalization: A worldwide process involving the production, distribution, and
consumption of technological, political, economic and socio-cultural goods and
Hegemony: Domination through ideological control and consent. The predominant
influences of a state, religion or group over another or others.
Hominid Ancestors: Our human ancestors.
Homo sapiens sapiens: Modern human beings.
Hypothesis: A tentative statement particular relationship (between objects, people,
or groups of people) that can be tested empirically.
I: The unsocialized part of the self.
Idealism: The belief that the human mind and consciousness are more important in
understanding the human condition than is the material world.
Ideal Types: Classic for pure forms of a given social phenomenon (e.g. to some, the
United States is an ideal type of capitalism.)
Ideology: A set of beliefs and values that support and justify the ruling class of a
Imperialism: The conquest of land resources, and people’s labor; the practices and
attitudes of colonizers.
Invention/innovation: Occurs when existing cultural items are manipulated or
modified to produce something new and socially valuable.
Laissez-faire: A point of view that opposes regulation of or interference with
natural processes.
Language: A shared symbol system of rules and meanings that governs the
production and interpretation of speech.
Latency: The system needs to motivate individuals to release their frustrations in
socially appropriate ways.

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Latent Functions: Institutions actually perform a number of functions not in their
intended design. (Lifelong partners at U of W.) They do things that are not clearly
stated as their intended design) the unintended consequences of an action or social
Laws: A type of norm that is formally defined and enacted in legislation.
Liberal humanist assumption: The belief that everyone should be treated equally
and recognized as human beings.
Looking-glass Self: Cooley’s belief that we develop our self-image through the cues
we receive from others.
Macrosociology: The study of society as a whole. Conflict theorists, functionalists
ask large questions.
Manifest Functions: Institutions are thought to perform the functions for which they
were designed. The intended consequences of an action or social pattern.
Material Culture: The tangible artifacts and physical objects found in a given
Me: The socialized part of the self.
Mechanical Solidarity: Describes early societies based on similarities and
Microsociology: The study of individual or small-group dynamics within a larger
society. Symbolic theorists.
Moral or Political Inequity: According to Rousseau inequity based on human
classification of valuable things (e.g. money, social status)
Mores: Norms that carry a strong sense of social importance and necessity.
Natural or Physical Inequity: According to Rousseau, inequity based on physical
differences established by nature (e.g. strength intelligence)
Natural Selection: The biological based principle that environmental pressures
allow certain beneficial traits to be passed on to future generations.
Natural State: Thomas Hobbes conception of the human condition before the
emergence of formal social structures.
Non-material culture: The intangible and abstract components of a society,
including values and norms.
Normalization: A social process by which some practices and ways of living are
marked as “normal” and others are marked as “abnormal.”
Norms: Culturally defined rules that outline appropriate behaviors.
Organic Analogy: The belief that society is like an organism with interdependent
and interrelated parts.
Organic Solidarity: Describes later societies organized around interdependence
and the increasing division of labor.
Orientalism: Said’s concept of a discourse of power that creates a false distinction
between a superior West and an inferior East.
Participant observation: Active participation by a researcher in a research setting;
combines observations and participation in daily-life activities of research of
subjects (also known as fieldwork).
Pattern Maintenance: Involves socially appropriate ways to display tensions and
Personal Troubles: Personal challenges that require individual solutions.
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