Exam One Review Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Definitions Charles Wright Mills Peter Berger Social Imagination Five Social Factors: That define individuals Origins of Sociology The scientific revolution Auguste Comte Positivism Anti-Positivism Quantitat
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Exam One ReviewKey Terms Achieved Status Attributes developed throughout life as a result of effort and skill Eg course grades Actions For Talcott Parsons the result of an active an inventive process Adaptation The social system must be able to gather and distribute sufficient resources and adjust to changes in the environmentAlienation Marxist concept to describe the process by which workers lack connection to what they produce and become separated from themselves and other workers Anomie Emile Durkheims term for a state of normlessness that results from the lack of clear goals and may ultimately result in higher suicide rates Antipositivism A theoretical approach that considers knowledge and understanding to be the result of human subjectivity Ascribed StatusAttributes advantages and disadvantages assigned at birth eg sex Base The material and economic foundation for society made up of the forces of production and the relations of production Behaviors For Talcott Parsons the almost mechanical responses to specific stimuli Causality Relationship in which one variable causes a change in another variable Class Consciousness Recognition of domination and oppression and collective action to address it Collective Conscience Emile Durkheims concept highlighting the totality of a societys beliefs and sentiments Colonialism The concrete and ideological effects of imperialism within colonized territories Correlation A measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other Counterculture A type of subculture that strongly opposes the widely held cultural patterns of the larger population Culture A complex collection of values beliefs behaviors and material objects shared by a group and passed on from one generation to the next Cultural adaptation The process by which environmental pressures are addressed through changes in practices traditions and behaviors Cultural Universals Common cultural features found in all societies Culture Shock The feeling of disorientation alienation depression and loneliness experienced when entering a culture very different then ones own Cultural Relativism Appreciation that all cultures have intrinsic worth and should be evaluated and understood on their own terms Dialectics Hegels view of society as the result of oppositions contradictions and tensions from which new ideas and social change can emerge Diffusion Occurs when cultural items or practices are transmitted from one group to another Discourse A system of meaning that governs how we speak about a particular thing or issue Discovery Occurs when something previously unrecognized or understood is found to have social or cultural applications Disembedding mechanism A mechanism that aids in shifting social relations from local to global context Discipline The means by which we become motivated to produce realities Ethnocentricism The tendency to view ones culture as superior to all others Evolution The biological process by which genetic mutations are selected for and against through environmental pressures Exploitation The difference between what workers are paid and the wealth they create for the owner Extralocal social relations Relations that extend beyond the local immediate setting False consciousness Belief in and support of the system that oppresses you Forces of Production The physical and intellectual resources a society has to make a living Formal Sociology Simmels theory that argues that different human interactions once isolated from their content can be similar in form Folkways Informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving Goal Attainment The system needs to establish clear goals and priorities Globalization A worldwide process involving the production distribution and consumption of technological political economic and sociocultural goods and services Hegemony Domination through ideological control and consent The predominant influences of a state religion or group over another or others Hominid Ancestors Our human ancestors Homo sapiens sapiens Modern human beings Hypothesis A tentative statement particular relationship between objects people or groups of people that can be tested empirically I The unsocialized part of the self Idealism The belief that the human mind and consciousness are more important in understanding the human condition than is the material world Ideal Types Classic for pure forms of a given social phenomenon eg to some the United States is an ideal type of capitalism Ideology A set of beliefs and values that support and justify the ruling class of a societyImperialism The conquest of land resources and peoples labor the practices and attitudes of colonizers Inventioninnovation Occurs when existing cultural items are manipulated or modified to produce something new and socially valuable Laissezfaire A point of view that opposes regulation of or interference with natural processes Language A shared symbol system of rules and meanings that governs the production and interpretation of speechLatency The system needs to motivate individuals to release their frustrations in socially appropriate ways