Exam Review Topics Review so you will know what to study for when you are cramming for that exam!
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Soc 101 Exam Review
140 MC questions
Worth 35% of final grade
**there will be ~30 questions on crime (haven’t been tested on crime yet)
chapter 1-10 & 14
Crash, She’s a Boy I Knew, Race is a 4 Letter Word, video clips shown and the beginning of class (only those discussed
during the lecture)
Guest Lectures: Julia Woodhall – Classical Theory, Krista Shackleford – Culture
Durkheim - functionalist
o Established sociology as a serious scientific endeavour
o Culture and society exist outside of the individual, are independent of the individual, and outlive the
individual. He referred to this external collective force as the collective conscience that drives your
behaviours without being aware of it. The collective conscience is the “totality of beliefs and sentiments
common to average citizens of the same society that has its own life”. Since we cannot see the collective
conscience directly, we are forced to study reflections of it; these reflections are the social facts. Social
facts are general social features that exist on their own and are independent of individual
o People wanted to work together for collective benefit. The new urban and industrial society presented
many challenges to both the individual and the collective
o Low levels of social integration and regulation were a source of various social problems, including rising
deviance and suicide rates
o Most of his writing focus on the causes of this decline in moral society and on the institutions of religion
and education, which he believed had potential to lessen it.
o Anomie Is a state of normlessness that results from the lack of clear goals and creates feelings of
confusion that may ultimately lead to higher suicide rates
o He suggested that while we are more collectively oriented and live in a less punitive society today than
in the past, we no longer have a choice to coexist – instead, we need each other to survive.
Weber – symbolic interactionist
o One of the founding figures of sociology
o Analysis of how the social world is becoming increasingly rationalized over time, by which he meant that
people are becoming more focused on selecting the most efficient means to accomplish any particular
o While rationalization may make society more productive and efficient it may also result in people that
act like machines and do not appreciate the larger social world in which they exist
o Verstehen means a deep understanding and interpretation of subjective social meanings. It refers to
understanding the meaning of an action from the actor’s point of view. Human actors are not seen as
the product of external forces that directs their lives, but instead as active agents who engage with
others to recognize their world and give it meaning.
Mead – symbolic interactionist
o “social organism” is not an organic individual but “a social group of individual organisms”
o Society is not the collection of pre-existing autonomous individuals but instead is the result of
individuals defining themselves through participation in social acts
o The mind emerges and develops once individuals demonstrate an ability to communicate their thoughts
to others and to themselves
o The I is the unsocialized self, the entity that is spontaneous, creative, and impulsive. The Me is the
socialized self that monitors the actions of the I – the judgmental, reflective, and controlling side of the
self that reflects the values and attitudes of the society.
o Significant others are people we want to impress or gain approval from
o Generalized other – a compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society;
represents an individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially
accepted guidelines and rules.
o Role taking is assuming the position of another to better understand that person’s perspective
o Stages of social interaction
Preparatory stage (birth to three) young children imitating other’s actions. Want to please
significant others. Through positive and negative reinforcement, form the I, but the me is still
forming in the background
Play stage (three to five) children learn a lot about selves and others through play. They begin
to assume the roles of others (i.e. Batman, Superman, etc). Move beyond simple imitation and
assume the imagined roles of the characters they are playing. The me continues to grow.
Game stage (elementary school years) children become efficient at carrying out multiple roles
at a time. By doing so, begin to identify with the generalized other. Skills learned through play
stage are readily transferred to real life situations.
o Primary socialization occurs when people learn the attitudes, values, and appropriate behaviours for
individuals in their culture
o Secondary socialization follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific
groups with defined roles and expectations
Blummer – symbolic interactionist
o People don’t respond directly to the world around them, but instead to the meanings they collectively
apply to it. He investigates (as a symbolic interactionist) how culture is actively created and recreated
through social interaction.
Cooley – symbolic interactionist
o Sociology should be the study of social reality, including individual consciousness: sympathetic
introspection – required sociologists to analyze an actor’s consciousness by putting themselves in their
shoes. This allows sociologists to appreciate the actor’s reality and to experience the social reality as he
or she would. Similar to Mill’s concept of the sociological imagination
o The looking glass self is an active, imaginative process by which we develop our self image through the
cues we receive from others
Three components: first, imagine how we appear to others. Second, imagine how others would
judge that appearance. Third, reflect on that image and develop some self-feeling as a result.
The impressions you see in the eyes of people you meet help to define who you think you are.
Can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy
McLuhan – media influences
o Believed that media influences the ways in which individuals, societies, and cultures perceive and
understand their environments
o Remembered for two primary contributions: his analysis of Canada’s political economy through his
staples thesis and his studies of media theory
o Division of different media biases and how they influenced society. For example, a time bias leads to a
stable society over time but is fixed in geographic location, while a space bias creates a much more
flexible and precise form of communication that is easy to transport over great distances.
o Seeing the general in the particular: the ability to look at seemingly unique events or circumstances and
then recognize the larger (or general) features involved. The ability to move from the particular to the
general and back again is one the hallmarks of the sociological perspective.
o Seeing the strange in the familiar: simply doing that, taking seemingly normal (familiar) images,
situations, etc., and truly noticing how strange they are
Marx – conflict theorist
o Philosopher, economist, political scientist, historian, sociologist.
o People are naturally competitive with each other because they have unlimited wants but unequal
abilities to fulfill them. Human relationships have power imbalances.
o To understand Marx is to understand for power permeates the ways people interact not only as
individuals but also as entire classes
o Dialectics is Hegel’s view of society as the result of oppositions, contradictions, and tensions from which
new ideas and social change can emerge
o Idealism is the belief that the human mind and consciousness are more important in understanding the
human condition that is the material world.
o Ideology is a set of beliefs and values that support and justify the ruling class of a society
o People had the capacity to alter the human environment so that it could provide a supportive
foundation for the achievement of human potential. He also realized that society could be manipulated
by the rich and powerful so that it met their needs first and everyone else’s second.
o Base: the material and economic foundation for society, made up of the forces of production and the
relations of production
o Forces of production are the physical and intellectual resources a society has with which to make a
o Relations of production are the relationship between workers and owners
o Superstructure: all of the things that society values and aspires to once its material needs are met
Foucault – post-structuralist
o Interested in the ways that power and knowledge work together
o Critiqued Marxism, for emphasizing class and the political economy as being the key principles in social
organization. This emphasis means that struggles are based on race, gender and sexuality were
o Power, Thinking and Discourse
Power is not a thing possessed by one individual over another. He views power relationships as
being created within social relationships. As such, these are multidirectional, can be found
anywhere and are always at work. Power relations can produce particular forms of behaviour.
Truths and facts are contextual, meaning that they can never be separated from the relations of
power within which they are produced. To know something (particularly the truth) is to exercise
**there will be ~30 questions on crime (haven"t been tested on crime yet) Crash, she"s a boy i knew, race is a 4 letter word, video clips shown and the beginning of class (only those discussed during the lecture) Guest lectures: julia woodhall classical theory, krista shackleford culture. Durkheim - functionalist: established sociology as a serious scientific endeavour, culture and society exist outside of the individual, are independent of the individual, and outlive the individual. He referred to this external collective force as the collective conscience that drives your behaviours without being aware of it. The collective conscience is the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society that has its own life . Since we cannot see the collective conscience directly, we are forced to study reflections of it; these reflections are the social facts.