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Study Guide

SCMA*1090- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 28 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
SCMA*1090
Professor
smith
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofGH
SCMA*1090
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Pages 1 -25 and 27-29 !
The Unmaking of Traditional Society !
People believed that the material world was composed of the four basic elements: earth,
waster, air and fire !
God created the world out of chaos, gave it order and stability !
Humans could choose good over evil; could also choose desire and strider !
Human reasoning is dicult and error-prone !
Reasons was weak, suspect and subordinate to that portion of absolute truth that was
revealed in the bible and church !
The focus of life should be death, or what amounted to the same thing, life after death or
salvation !
Theological thinking was being challenged by modern science!
Traditional society did not pass quietly into the modern society !
Beginning of the intellectual transformation of society occurred at the end of the first
Christian millennium !
Social Structure
The social structure of feudal society included a sharply dierentiated social hierarchy - a
seto categories of people from high to low; at the top of the hierarchy was hereditary
aristocracy !
In feudal Europe, most political and economic power was in hands of local landlords !
Titled aristocrats were given the right to do horrible but legal things to their tenants!
Feudal society was dominated by two interconnected institutions of traditional authority:
Church and the state!
Christian God was believed to be above the feudal pyramid !
Thomas Aquinas
Incorporated traditional belief !
Truth, was independent of revelation!
Direct challenge to christianity!
Rationalism sought to repcnile pagan learning with christian beliefs !
Reason could be harnessed by the church and used to help maintain the faithful!
Hierarchy contains dierent orders based on dierent duties and functions existing under the
government of one ruler!
Aquinas attaches an organic conception of social order !
Society is like living organism composed of dierent parts, some more essential than others,
but a part of a single whole!
Each group of people occupies a specific place in the feudal structure!
Each receives unequal rewards and possesses unequal rights and is bound by duty to
perform whatever tasks comprehend to this social placement!
Herbert Spencer’s evolutionary theory!
Talcott Parsons’ understanding that the social system was composed of functionally
necessary and interdependent parts maintained by a value consensus implies an organic
model of society !
Hierarchy reflects social conditions and the assumed ordering of the divine, christian thinking !
In essence, human are qual and everyone is born equal in the sight of god and possess an
individual soul that can be saved!
Theory of hierarchy legitimated the traditional, feudal society !
Aquinas sought a place for rationality in the traditional social order!
Economy, Politics and Ideology
Reason, alone, is insucient for turret!
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Reason itself exists in hierarchy!
At the top is absolute reason possessed by God !
Gods infinite wisdom has been revealed to humans through revelation!
Human reason can be used to prove things that cannot be perceives, such as the existence
ofGod and the immortal soul!
Human reason is inferior to absolute reason !
The human nature of each sex was suited for the task God ordained for it !
Trade and Commerce
The fundamental feudal principle was that land was common in the sense no one pressed
right her it!
But on excessed exercise rights over the agricultural and commercial property they
controlled !
Aristotle had justified private property in his assertion that “the possession of external things
is natural to man”!
Aquinas attempted to devise a compromise position - agreed that all creation was actually
common!
Trading one good for another is a purely functional act !
The real goal of living is to lead a good, moral life !
Usury - charging interest on a loan !
People thought that was unethical !
Tyranny - cruel or oppressive government !
As the middle ages plodded unknowingly towards the modern world, it appeared that
society had achieved its highest potential under the rule of the medieval popes !
Early Modern Science
The medieval conception of society as part of a divinely ordained hierarchy was decisively
squeezed out of Western social theory by the relentless pressure of social change and
scientific discovery !
Liberalism emerged in a world that legalized slavery, gave absolute power to kings and
princes, have some groups legal right that were denied others and maintained patriarchal
dominance over women and children !
Liberalism embodied a fundamental reorientation of the Western thought because it included
a dynamic element of perpetual movement and progress !
Reflected the world that was coming to be !
Church rested the claim of early modern science !
European theory prior to the sixteenth century had been rooted in deductive reasoning !
In place of authority, whether secular or religious, the scientists of the new age combined
rational thought with careful observation due experimentation, a processes known as
inductive reasoning !
Francis Bacon - new empirical method of knowledge !
For F.B. the scientific knowable is acquired inductively from the data derived from
observation !
Modern science gradually disavowed the old search for the mercury of life !
Scientists would make an absolute distinction between material facts, which could be
studied scientifically and for which truths could be determined !
Christianity had been discredited for many intellectuals who professed the theology of deism
in the place of organized religion!
Deists did not deny the existence of God but held that the deity was only the first cause !
Economic and Social Change
Scientific revolution seven with three parallel developments in European society to undermine
the tottering feudal structure and to erect the foundations of modern society!
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