AP Midterm 2 Review
Ch. 26 Respiratory Anatomy
Functions: gas exchange, pH regulation, speech, olfaction (smell), also warms, filters
and humidifies air
Upper respiratory tract
- Outside of thorax
- Nasal cavity, pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laropharynx)
Lower respiratory tract
- Trachea, L/R primary bronchi, bronchioles
- Bony, cartilaginous frame
- Cartilage (soft) is “ala”; sides of nose is “ala fibrofatty tissue” (not cartilage)
- Seperated from mouth by palatine bones
- Septum (perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, vomer, vomeronasal cartilages,
septal nasal cartilage), splits nose in two nostrils Ch. 27 Respiratory Physiology
Ch. 28 Digestive Anatomy
- Mucus: Thick, slippery material secreted by mucous membranes that keeps the
membrane moist and protected [mucus slime]
- Mucous membrane: Epithelial membrane that lines body surfaces opening
directly to the exterior and secretes mucous
- The main organs of the digestive system form a tube that goes all the way
through hthe ventral cavities of the body. It is open at both ends. This tube is
referred to as the alimentary tract.
- The term gastrointestinal tract refers only to the stomach and intestines but is
sometimes used in reference to the entire alimentary canal - The GI tract is a tube with walls fashioned of four layers of tissues: mucous
lining, submucosal coat of connective tissue (with embedded blood vessels),
muscular layer, and a fibroserous layer.
The mouth: Oral/Buccal cavity
- Formation of the oral cavity: the lips, cheeks (side walls), the tongue and its
muscles (floor), and the hard and soft palate (roof).
- Covered externally by skin and internally by mucous membrane that continues
into the oral cavity and lines the mouth. The junction between skin and mucous
membrane is highly sensitive and easily irritated. The upper lip is marked near
the midline by the philtrum which ends at the junction between skin and mucous
membrane in a slight prominence called the tubercle. The term fissure is often
used to describe a cleft or groove between or separating anatomical structures.
Therefore, when the lips are closed, the line of contact between them is called
the oral fissure.
- The lips keep food in the mouth while it is being chewed and help sense
temperature and texture of food before entering the mouth. The lips are needed
for many speech sounds.
Hard palate – Contains bone under epithelium (two palatine bones, two maxillae)
Soft palate – Contains muscular tissue, parts the mouth and nasopharynx
- The soft palate consists of muscle arranged in the shape of an arch. The opening
of the arch leads from the mouth into the oropharynx and is named the fauces.
Suspended from the midpoint of the posterior border of the arch is a small cone-
shaped process, the uvula.
- The cheeks form the lateral boundaries of the oral cavity. They are continuous
with the lips in front and are lined by mucous membrane that is reflected onto the
gingiva, or gums, and the soft palate. The cheeks form in large part by the
buccinators muscle – sandwiched with adipose, tissue between the outer skin
and mucous membrane lining.
- The organs of mastication (chewing). Designed to cut, tear, and grind ingested
food so it can be mixed with saliva and swallowed. Chewing increases SA that
can be acted on by digestive enzymes. The tongue:
- A solid mass of skeletal muscle components (intrinsic muscle) covered by a
Root, tip, and body
- The tongue has papillae at the rear and side (dorsal/lateral) surfaces
Lingual frenulum – Attaches tongue to base of mouth
The salivary glands
- The salivary glands are outside the alimentary canal and convey their exocrine
secretions by way of ducts in the glands into the lumen of the tract. The mucous
and serous cells seen in the compound tubuloalveolar gland together secrete a
mixture of fluids that are then modified by the duct cells on their way out of the
- Three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
glands) secrete apprx. 1 L of saliva per day.
- The minor salivary glands (Buccal glands) that occur in the mucosa lining in the
cheeks and mouth contribute less than 5% of the total salivary volume but
contribute to hygiene and comfort in the mouth tissues.
Parotid glands – (Pyramidal parotids) The largest of the paired salivary glands
- Located between the skin and underlying masseter muscle in front of and below
the external ear
- Produce a watery (serous) type of saliva containing enzymes but not mucous.
- Parotid ducts are about 5 cm (2 in) long and penetrate the buccinators muscle on
each side and open into the mouth through the parotid papilla opposite the upper
- on side of cheeks, no mucous cells present, primary enzyme is amylase (digests
Submandibular glands – Enzymes and mucous saliva, one on each side of mouth
- Mixed or compound glands because they contain both serous (enzyme) and
mucous- producing elements
- Located just below mandibular angle
- Irregular in form, about the size of a walnut
- The ducts of the submandibular glands open into the mouth on either side of the
- Are the smallest of the main salivary glands - Lie in front of the submandibular glands, under the mucous membrane covering
the floor of the mouth
Lumen of duct
Wall of the GI tract
Muscularis – The muscular layer; a thick layer of muscle tissue that wraps around the
submucosal; characterized by an inner layer of circular and an outer layer of
longitudinal smooth muscle. Contains nerves organized into a plexus (myenteric