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ADM2372 Final review.docx

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Nour El- Kadri

ADM2372 Final reviewChapter 7 Databases and Data WarehousesOrganizational data and informationData are raw facts that describe the characteristics of an eventInformation is data converted into a meaningful and useful contextInformation granularity refers to the extent of detail within the information fine and detailed or coarse and abstract The Value of transactional data and Analytical informationTransactional Data Sales receipts Airline tickets Packing slipsAnalytical information Product statistics Sales projections Future growth product trendsAre all store in the Database Value of timely data and informationReal time Data Is immediate The Value of Quality Data and Information METRICSAccuracy Are the values correct For example is the name spelled correctly IS the collar amount properly recordedCompleteness Are there any values missing For example is the address complete including street city province and postal codeConsistency Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with detailed information For example do all total fields equal the true total of the individual fieldsUniqueness Is each transaction entity and event represented only once in the information Are there duplicate customersTimeliness Is the information current with respect to the business requirements IS information update weekly hourly daily The value of Quality Data and Information 1 Missing information no first name 2 Incomplete date No street 3 Inaccurate data Invalid email 4 Probable duplicate data Similar names same address same phone number 5 Potential wrong data Are the phone and fax number the same or is it an error 6 Incomplete Data Missing area codes The four primary sources of low quality information include 1 Online customers intentionally enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy 2 Data or information from different systems have different entry standards and formats 3 Call center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time 4 Third party and external information contains inconsistencies inaccuracies and errors Relational database fundamentalsInformation is everywhere in an organizationInformation is store in databases o Database Maintains information about various types of objects inventory events Transactions people employees and places warehousesDatabases include o Hierarchical Database model Information is organized into a treelike structure using parentchild relationships in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships o Relational database model Stores information in the form of logically related twodimensional tables Entity Entity classes and AttributesEntity A person place thing transaction or event about which information is stored o The rows in each table contain the entities o In figure 75 CUSTOMER includes Daves Sub Shop and Pizza Palace entitiesEntity class Table A collection of similar entities o In figure 75 CUSTOMER ORDER ORDER LINES DISTRIBUTOR and PRODUCT are entity classesAttributes Fields columns Characteristics or properties of an entity class o The colums in each table contain the attributes o In figure 75 attribute for CUSTOMER includeCustomer IDCustomer nameContact namePhone number Keys and RelationshipsPrimary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes tables in the database o Primary key A fields or group of fields that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table o Foreign Key A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables Increased flexibilityA well designed database should o Handle changes quickly and easily o Provide users with different views o Have only one physical viewPhysical view Deals with the physical storage of information on storage device o Have multiple logical viewsLogical view Focuses on how users logically access information Increased Scalability and PerformanceA database must scale to meet increased demand while maintaining acceptable performance levels o Scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demandsMust keep performance exquisite no matter how many records you have o Performance Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction Reduced redundancyDatabases reduce information redundancy o Redundancy The duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places o Often 2 databases are in use in case one failsInconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information Database Management systemsDBMS Software through which users and application programs interact with a database
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