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BONES 1.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1140
Professor
A L L
Semester
Winter

Description
Basic breakdown of bonesBone is a living dynamic tissue which responds to its environment 1Bone reacts to amount of force applied by increasing both the densityamount of roughening on bone or decreasing density when force is reduced or eliminated eg paralysis deposition vs reabsorption 2Bone stores calciumresorbedtransferred to bloodstream when needed FUNCTIONS OF BONE 1SUPPORT Bone provide the necessary framework that supports the body and holds its soft organs2PROTECTION Bones provide bony protection for the CNS fused bones of the skull and the rib cage to protect the organs in the thoracic cavity3MOVEMENT Skeletal muscles attached to bones through tendons use them as levers to move the body the type of joints determine the type of movement4MINERAL STORAGE Bones store Calcium and Phosphate which are the 2 most important minerals in the body5BLOOD CELL FORMATION Hematopoiesis takes place in the red marrow of certain bones 6FAT STORAGE Fat is stored in the bone cavities and it is an important source of energy7HORMONE PRODUCTION Bones produce osteoclacin a hormone that helps regulate bone formation but also protects against obesity glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitusCartilagesCartilage is a stiff yet flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals including the joints between bones the rib cage the ear the nose the elbow the knee the ankle the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs It is not as hard and rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscleCartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers Cartilage is classified in three types elastic cartilage hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage which differ in the relative amounts of these three main componentsUnlike other connective tissues cartilage does not contain blood vessels The chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion from the blood vessels of the
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