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BIO Key Words-Archea.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO1140
Professor
A L L
Semester
Winter

Description
BIOKeyWordsAerobicAnaerobicAntibioticresistanceArchaeaATPsythetasesynthaseAutotrophBacillusbacteriaBacteriaEubacteriaBacterialflagellumBacteriophageBinaryfissionCapsuleCellularrespirationCelluloseChemolithoheterotrophChemolithotrophsChemoorganoheterotrophsChemoorganotrophsChitinCirculargenomeCoccalbacteriaConjugationCyanobacteriaDaughtercellElectrondonorElectronreceptorElectrontransportchainEukaryotaExtremophilesFermentationFlagellarhookFlagellarmotorFnegativeandFpostivebacteriaGramnegativebacteriaGramPositivebacteriaHalophilesHeterotrophHorizontalgenetransferLithotrophsMethanogensMoneraNitrogenfixationNucleoidOxidizedPathogenPenicillinPeptidoglycanPeriplasmPhotoheterotrophsPhotosynthesisPhototrophsPilliPlasmidProkaryoteProtongradientsRedoxpairReducedRibosomeSpirochetebacteriaStromatolitesThermophilesTransductionTransformationAerobicRelating to involving or requiring free oxygen Anaerobic Relating to involving or requiring an absence of free oxygenAntibiotic resistance The acquisition of unresponsiveness to a specific antibiotic by a microorganism that was previously adversely affected by the drug Such resistance generally results from a mutation or the acquisition of R plasmids qv by the microorganism Compare with antibiotic tolerance See efflux pump ArcheaThedomaincomprisingwhatwereformerlyknownasthearchaebacteriaWhatusedtobethekingdomArchaebacteriahasbeensplitintotwokingdomsCrenarchaeotaandEuryarchaeotaThedomainArchaeacontainsthephenotypesmethanogenssulphatereducingorganismsandextremophilesAtaxonomicdomainofsinglecelledorganismslackingnucleiformerlycalledarchaebacteriabutnowknowntodifferfundamentallyfrombacteriaATPsynthaseAmultimericproteincomplexthatplaysakeyroleintheenergymetabolismofallorganismsTheinnermembranesofthemitochondriaofeukaryotesarecoveredwiththeseorganellesTheyappearasparticles89nmindiameterEachparticlehasasphericalheadpiecetheF1domainthatprojectsintothematrixofthemitochondrionandcontainsthecatalyticsitesforATPsynthesisImbeddedinthelipidbilayerthatformstheinnermembraneofthemitochondrionisacylindricalhydrophobictailpiecetheFodomainthatcontainsachannelforastreamofprotonsThispowersarotationgeneratorwhichismadeupofaringof1012subunitsthatrotate50100timesasecondThisrotationforceismechanicallycoupledtothecatalyticsitesintheF1domainTheseundergoacycleofconformationalchangeswhichfirstlooselybindATPandinorganicphosphatemoleculesthenrigidlybindthenascentATPandfinallyreleaseitTogetherthecomponentsofthedifferentdomainsofATPsynthasecontainatleast16differentproteinsandmanymutationshavebeendetectedinthegenesinthenucleiwhichencodetheseSuchlossoffunctionmutationsaregenerallylethalwhenhemizygousorhomozygousTherearealsotwogeneslocatedinmtDNAandindividualswithmutationsintheirmtDNAcansurviveprovidedwildtypemitochondriaarealsopresentintheircellsTheATPsynthasesofbacteriaandchloroplastsresemblethoseofmitochondriawithrespecttotheproteinsthatoccupytheFoandF1domainsInbacteriaeightofthegenesthatencodetheseproteinsareclusteredinasingleoperonAutotrophAnorganismthatusescarbondioxideasitsmainorsolesourceofcarbonBacillusBacteria1 Any of various rodshaped sporeforming aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include B anthracis the causative agent of anthrax2 Any of various bacteria especially a rodshaped bacteriumEubacteriaOneofthethreemajordomainsoflivingorganismscomprisingaerobicandanaerobicbacteriaoccurringinvirtuallyallhabitatsSomeliveinoronthebodiesofotherorganismsandmaycausediseaseEubacteriaarenowregardedasbeingquitedistinctinevolutionarytermsfromtheothergroupofprokaryotesthearchaebacteriaseeArchaeaThisisbasedmainlyoncomparisonsofthenucleotidesequencesofribosomalRNAseemolecularsystematicsHowevereubacteriahaveotherdefiningcharacteristicsForexamplevirtuallyallhavecellwallscontainingpeptidoglycanandtheirmembranelipidscontainfattyacidsinesterlinkagetoglycerolwhereasarchaebacterialackpeptidoglycanandhaveetherlinkedlipidsBacterialflagellumThebacterialflagellumismadeupoftheproteinflagellinItsshapeisa20nanometerthickhollowtubeItishelicalandhasasharpbendjustoutsidetheoutermembranethishookallowstheaxisofthehelixtopointdirectlyawayfromthecellAshaftrunsbetweenthehookandthebasalbodypassingthroughproteinringsinthecellsmembranethatactasbearingsGrampositiveorganismshave2ofthesebasalbodyringsoneinthepeptidoglycanlayerandoneintheplasmamembraneGramnegativeorganismshave4suchringstheLringassociateswiththelipopolysaccharidesthePringassociateswithpeptidoglycanlayertheMringisembeddedintheplasmamembraneandtheSringisdirectlyattachedtotheplasmamembraneThefilamentends1718withacappingproteinThebacterialflagellumisdrivenbyarotaryenginetheMotcomplexmadeupofproteinlocatedattheflagellumsanchorpointontheinnercellmembraneTheengineispoweredbyprotonmotiveforceiebytheflowofprotonshydrogenionsacrossthebacterialcellmembraneduetoaconcentrationgradientsetupbythecellsmetabolisminVibriospeciestherearetwokindsofflagellalateralandpolarandsomearedrivenby19asodiumionpumpratherthanaprotonpumpTherotortransportsprotonsacrossthemembraneandisturnedintheprocessTherotoralonecanoperateat6000to17000rpmbutwiththeflagellarfilamentattachedusuallyonlyreaches200to1000rpmThedirectionofrotationcanbeswitchedalmostinstantaneouslycausedbyaslight20changeinthepositionofaproteinFliGintherotorThecylindricalshapeofflagellaissuitedtolocomotionofmicroscopicorganismstheseorganismsoperateatalowReynoldsnumberwheretheviscosityofthesurrounding21waterismuchmoreimportantthanitsmassorinertiaBacteriophage avirusthatattacksbacteriaIngeneralaphageconsistsofaheadtailandtailfibresallcomposedofproteinmoleculesandacoreofDNAThetailandtailfibresareresponsibleforattachmenttothebacterialsurfaceandforinjectionoftheDNAcoreintothehostcellThephagegrowsandreplicatesinthebacterialcellwhichiseventuallydestroyedwiththereleaseofnewphagesEachphageactsspecificallyagainst
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