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carbiniferous and permian.doc

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University of Ottawa

1Carboniferous and Permian Carboniferous period 359299 MaDuring paleozoic era In Phanerozoic eonglaciation low sea level mountain buildinga lot of coal beds laid downaquatic no major body forms lostunusual trees in forests gymnosperms dominatemore oxygen in atmosphere about 30the continents are forging together from pole to pole with ice at each polewe have massive carboniferous forests dominated by fern and mossesCarboniferous aquatic environments most organisms in oceans are still there in terms of the phylaex radulas shells cartilagenous skeletonscharacteristics there morphologically they dont look the same as they do nowCarboniferous coal forests club mossesgiant horse tails over 15 feettree ferns no major seed plants doing this all with spores to create massive forestsno organisms capable of breaking down the ligninthe plants would die and nothing would recycle them fossilized due to high amount of CO2 and over time they stacked up on top of each other to produce coal30 oxygen in atmosphere during this timeCoal forestswetland forests over most tropical areas in Late Carboniferous and Permianclub mosses giant horsetails tree fernsaccumulated tons of peatbecame coalall the coal we use today is from carboniferous coal forestslignin there were no insects or fungi to decompose it so it fossilizedEvolutionary trend in plant life cycles over time the gametophytes get smaller and the plant will spend more time in its sporophyte structure plants will start to develop seedsseedless plants and no vascular tissue are the liverworts and mossseedless plants with vascular tissue are the fernsseeded plants with vascular tissue are the gymnosperms and angiospermsEvolution of plant vascular tissues going to perfect lignin in vascular tissue and have complete plumbing system for liquid transfer and cell supportLignin hydrophobic so there is no water resistanceindigestiblebacterial and fungal organisms begin to eat lignin fungi become specialized in itits toxic so when things in water come in contact with the lignin they will dieoa way for the plant to sterile the waterLignincomplex polymer in wood very hard to break downbinds to cellulose fibres to harden and strengthen cell walls of plants
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