Study Guides (248,518)
Canada (121,606)
CMN1148 (69)

Midterm 1(Ch1-4).docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Sherry Ferguson

Chapter 1 Interpersonal Process What is communication: The process of acting upon information (Someone/Something says or does something and others respond with words or actions.) Human Communication: The process of making sense out of the world and sharing it with others Interpersonal Communication: The process of engaging in simultaneous and mutually influential interaction with others (Foundation of organizational communication) • Quantitative (focus on the number of people involved)and Qualitative (focus on the quality and nature of interaction in terms of uniqueness ,closeness , amount of disclosure and the interdependence of the people involved)definitions • Personal and Impersonal Communication: A matter of balance • Interpersonal communication and technology (CMC vs FTF) Organizational Communication: The process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others in order to achieve mutual goals in organizational contexts Why we communicate • Physical needs (request for coffee and muffin at Pivik) • Identity needs (joining one of the cultural student organizations on campus) • Social needs (calling friend to ask if (s)he plans to attend company barbeque ) • Practical needs (purchase of books) The Communication Process Insights from the communication model • Sending and receiving are usually simultaneous • Meanings don’t exist in the message but in and among people • Environments affect communication • Noise affects Communication • Channels make a difference Communication Principles • Communication is transactional ( a dynamic process created by the participants through their interaction with one another) • Communication can be intentional or unintentional • Communication has a content ( the information being explicitly discussed) and a relational dimension (refers to how communicators feel about each other) • Communication is irreversible • Communication is unrepeatable Communication Misconceptions • Not all communication seeks understanding • More communication is not always better (verbal fights) • Communication will not solve ALL problems • Effective communication is not a natural ability Culture: the language, values, beliefs, traditions and customs people share and learn In-groups: groups of people whom we identify Out-groups: groups of people whom we view as different Co-culture: a subgroup that is part of an encompassing culture Intercultural communication: the process by which members of two or more cultures exchange messages in a manner that is influenced by their different cultural perceptions and symbol systems Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s own culture is superior to others Prejudice: an unfairly biased and intolerant attitude towards others who belong to an out-group Stereotyping: exaggerated generalization about a group Communication Competence Communication competence: The ability to achieve one’s goals in a manner that is personally acceptable and, ideally acceptable to others. • Motivation and open mindedness are key • There is no single ideal or effective way to communicate • Competence is situational • Competence requires mindfulness • Competence can be learned Characteristics of competent communication • A large repertoire of skills • Adaptability • Ability to perform skillfully • Involvement • Empathy and perspective taking • Cognitive complexity : the ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue • Self-monitoring : the process of observing one’s behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves Some Early models classics in the fields 1. Aristotle 2. Lasswell 3. Shannon and Weaver 4. Berlo 5. Schramm 6. Dance 7. Barnlund Chapter2 Communication and the self Communication and the self-concept Self-concept: the relatively stable set of perception you hold of yourself Self-esteem: the part of the self-concept that involves evaluation of self-worth Self-control: the ability to change one’s thoughts, emotions and behavior in order to conform to an expectation How the self-concept develops • Reflected appraisal: the theory that a person’s self-concept matches the way the person believes others regard him or her • Social comparison: An evaluation of oneself by way of comparison to others Reference groups: groups against we compare ourselves, which thereby influence our self- concept and self-esteem Self-concept development in context • Language and identity • Cultural values and norms Characteristics of the self-concept • The self-concept is subjective Distorted feedback: information that can skew a person’s self-concept Obsolete information: information that can skew a person’s self-concept Myth of perfection: along with distorted feedback and obsolete information, it is another cause for low self-esteem and skewed self-concept • A healthy self-concept is flexible • The self-concept resists change Cognitive conservatism: the tendency to look for information that conforms to an exisiting self-concept The self-fulfilling prophecy and communication Self-fulfilling prophecy: occurs when a person’s expectations of an event and his/her subsequent behavior based on those expectations make the outcome more likely than it would otherwise be. Such prophecies can be self-imposed or governed by the behavior of others Presenting the self: Communication as identity management Identity management: the communication strategies that people use to influence how others view them Public and Private selves Perceived self: the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination Presenting self: a public image, the way you want to appear to others Face: your socially approved identity Facework: the verbal and non-verbal ways in which you act to maintain your own presenting image and the image of others Characteristics of identity management • We strive to construct multiple identities • Identity management is collaborative • Identity management can be deliberative or unconscious • People differ in their degree of identity management How do we manage impressions? • Face to face identity management • Identity management in computer mediated communication Disclosing the self • Honesty • Depth • Availability of information • Context sharing Social penetration model: two ways, measure by depth and breadth, that communication can be more or less disclosing Breadth: the range of subjects discussed Depth: the personal nature of information (significant and private self-disclosures, clichés, facts opinions and feelings) Benefits and Risks of Self-disclosure Benefits • Catharsis: revealing thoughts, feelings and emotions to release emotional burden • Self-Clarification: talking about beliefs, thoughts, opinions and attitudes to gain insight • Self-validation: seeking a listener’s agreements on something • Reciprocity: disclosing information to increase the likelihood that the other person will do the same • Impression formation: revealing personal information in order to make ourselves more attract
More Less

Related notes for CMN1148

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.