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Research evaluating a theory against realityLooking for info about something SubjectiveEveryday Researchbiased selective attention inaccurate generalizationPersonal interest intuitive common sense casualflawed thinkingScholarly Research theory based structured planned logical Scientific thinkingaccurate reliable conclusions empirical observation or data systematic and deliberate replicable proceduresIdentifying a research problem is a process of abstraction whose goal is to develop and examine explanationsObjective results reflect findings not personal opinionDiachronic Research linguistic studies that have historical focus Go back in history to see what might have triggered something not just interested in why it is the way it is nowSynchronic Research linguistic research that is comparative in natureTypes of logicreasoningDeductive conclusion is implied in premise One proceeds from the general to the particular which involving deducting a hypothesis from a set of assumptions or theoriesInductive begin with specific observations and measures Begin to detect patterns and regularities formulate some tentative hypothesisgeneral statement that we can explore and finally end up developing general conclusions or theoriesMicroscopic level individual as unit of analysisMacroscopic level larger unit scale as unit of analysisExploratory Research conducted to obtain a rough sense of what is happening on a topic we dont know well or have any assumptionsDescriptive Research provides basic descriptive information of the topic and participants Must have some knowledge about topicExplanatory Research based on descriptive information intended to explain relationships How and why some social phenomena occur Examine connection between variables Purpose to inform and educateEvaluation Research understanding the causes of human social behaviour and peoples opinions evaluating outcomes and providing explanations Purpose to enable to make valued judgements about the usefulness of a product or programResearch Designs1HistoricalComparative design for addressing questions Look at historical events or diverse cultural contexts to general new concepts and broader perspectives To compare entire cultures to learn about macro patterns or long term trends across decades or centuries Broadens understanding Unique FeaturesTypes of evidence limited and indirect Reconstructs from fragments and incomplete evidenceDistortion knowledge of a researcher can distort perceptionCross Context integrating diverse types of data and making comparison Human Role includes the consciousness of people in a context and uses their motives as causal factors
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