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CRM 1300 - Criminology: Course Notes (Lectures + Textbook)

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Carolyn Gordon

MidtermFebruary0911856 PMNorm establishedapproved ways of doing things in society Regulatespredicts behaviour Ex Personal space linesImplicit1Explicit2Deviance Violating cultural norms2 typesFormal1Individuals committing crimes JailInformal 2Not codified into law Thoughts etcWont go to jail but can be embarassedEg Cutting nails in public wearing indecent clothes talking to self in publicWhats considered deviant changes over timeDeviance can be positive leads to social changeMedia we focus on street crime NOT white collarWe believe criminals have certain traitsCrime key ingredientsActus reus guilty action1Mens rea guilty mindif youre insane you dont have this2Legal defence3Not all deviant acts are criminal vice versa Eg Jwalking and some drug use is not considered deviant but is criminalCrimeDeviance is relative toTime11983 sexually assaulting wife was OKIn the past homosexual actsillegalContext2Killing during warDrinking in public on Canada dayFighting in hockeyPlace3Selling of bongs sex in AmsterdamSocial status4Celebrities getting off easier than regular peopleDiplomats Relative to age 5Tantrums and fits 4 kids onlyMinors and crimesSociety dichotomizes criminal and noncriminal black and whiteSocial constructivism Is all crime inherently bad No Society says its badMoral panic occurs when a condition group person episode is seen as a threat to societal values and interests Midterm Page 1 Moral entrepreneurs the people who start the idea that there is a threatFolk devils the groups targeted by the moral panic the problemCRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMSocial control Organized reaction to behaviour viewed as problematicCJS network of organizations institutions facilities charged with the investigation detection prosecution and punishment of offenders3 agenciesPolice13 levelsMunicipal Ottawa police department 671Provincial Ontario Newfoundland QC 252FederalRCMP 83Courts23 levels Majority of casesDescending orderProvincial1Superior 2TrialaAppeals bSupreme3Appeals aCorrections 32 levels approx 200 jails Provincial 762 yearsless 1 dayFederal1142 years or overPrisons have been around for less than 250 years 300000 women processed through jails Women are NOT becoming more violent Females cost more per person in jail just because theres fewer females yet we still have to build institutions Fixed costs are distributed2 types of justiceSubstantive accuracy of outcome sentence deemed appropriate truthfulness1Procedural fairness of procedures trialjust Is evidence admissible illegal searches22 types of lawSubstantive declares which actions will be punished by the state1Eg Criminal codeProcedural says how rights of individuals can be enforced2Charter of rights and freedoms2 key aspects of justicePunishment should be proportionate to the crime1Similar cases should be treated alike2Crime FunnelTotal federal offences known to police1Estimated convictions in adult court2Estimated cases given a prison sentence3Total new convictions by federal offenders on conditional release4 Midterm Page 2 3 DsDiscretion1Use of individual decision making and choice to influence the operation of the CJSPolice officer giving warning instead of fineFactors that influence decisionAttitude towards officer quotas familiarityDisparity2Inconsistency as a result of the authorities using illegitimate factors in making decisionsSocial class racial profiling genderDiscrimination3Differential treatment or negative judgments relating to group membership4 categoriesSystematic1Exists in all aspects of the CJS ie Aboriginals more likely to be jailedInstitutional2Results of established policiesie Looking at unemployment for bail eligibility Women who are stay at home mom get discriminatedContextual3Due to particular situations Judge being biasedie Korea harming Korea is more lenient than Korea harming othersIndividual4Reflective of specific CJS employees Racist policeFunctions of CJS and criminal lawPunishment1Deterrent of crimes2General deters people in general through media1Specific deters a specific person from doing the crime AGAIN2Maintain order3Public safety4Define acceptable behaviour5Public opinion on morality6CJS ModelsCrime control model1Goalprotect citizens and communityEnforce lawPunish offendersDeter crimeEfficient justice Assembly line justicePoliciesIncreasepoliceIncrease correctional institutionsIncrease sentencesguilty until proven innocentMore power to CJSEliminate parolePurpose reduceof criminals and quick arrestconvictionsDue process model2Goal protect individuals from powers of stateEnhance legal rights of accused Midterm Page 3
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