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Final

CRM 1301 Study Guide - Final Guide: Electroconvulsive Therapy, Virginia Sterilization Act Of 1924, Intelligence Quotient


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 1301
Professor
Carolyn Gordon
Study Guide
Final

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Intellectual Incompetence
Charles Goring: “The English Convict” (1913)
goal:
assess Lombroso’s theory
research:
compared convicts to non-criminals
method:
careful statistical analysis
conclusions:
Lombroso’s method seriously flawed
the atavist did not exist
both were doctors and physicians - over 12 year compared 3000 prisoned convicts to a
group of unconvicted people and there was a big difference in the method that these
two men employed. Goring replied heavily on objective measurements and statistical
analysis of physical characteristics. Lombrosso tended to be much more subjective in
his measurements, based on the trained eye. Goring using careful statistical method
and found that there were not these big physical differences between criminals and non-
criminals. Goring found that there were only slight differences and claimed Lombrosso’s
method was seriously flawed and that he was just simply putting forth popular ideas at
the time of social darwinism. Concluded that this born criminal the atavist did not exist.
Findings
slight, physical differences
below average intelligence:
determined by talking to the criminal: subjective just like Lombrosso
said they were feeble minded
strong correlations b/w criminality of parents and children
said the criminality was inherited not a result of their environment
not simply learned behaviour... WHY?
the parents had been in prison so they had been away from the home however the
children still engaged in criminal behaviour
Conclusions
criminals are both physically inferior and mentally defective due to genetics
recommendations?
lets not allow these people to reproduce to pass on this defective gene
critique:
failure to measure substantial environmental influences/ over emphasized the
significance that heredity had
only studied males
claims criminality is inherited like every other attribute however criminal behaviour
is mainly found in male and noted the ratio of brother to sisters in prisons is 17:1
which contradicted his ideas. Downfall to his theory that he only studied males
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Richard Dugdale
hypothesis:
behaviors that are genetically determined should correlate more strongly among
family members
method:
1877- reviewed 7 generations of The Jukes
noted when he was at a jail that 6 people who were incarcerated were blood relatives
while he was inspecting a prison. this peaked his curiosity. Noted that 29 males who
were immediate blood relations, 17 of them have been arrested at one point or
convicted of a crime. Claimed he was able to go back 7 generations and get to the root
of the problem. Traced it back to a man by the name of max who had 2 sons who
married two sisters who were “illegitimate”. He created a family tree and traced it all
back to a sister called Margaret the mother of criminals. Known as the Jukes study.
What he found is that in this family over generations there were over 140 criminals.
Claimed this family alone had cost tax payers a great deal of money through relief,
incarceration, house arrest.
Concluded:
criminality is in fact inherited
The problem: Feeble-mindedness (Henry Godard)
theory:
all criminals are feeble-minded, but not all feeble-minded are criminals**
felt the feeble mindedness of these criminals explained why they engaged in
criminal behaviours and why they never learned from their punishments and would
recommit, couldnt learn from their mistakes, no mental capacity to make sense of
what was going on
solution?
stop assisting feeble minded people
society must stop interfering with natural selection (survival of the fittest)
critique?
how was it that he was determining if an individual was in fact of below average
intelligence
there was no test or tool at the time that could be given to these subjects
desperate need for a numerical way for measuring and expressing intellectual
differences between people
Alfred Binet’s Intelligence Test
intelligence could be calculated by measuring heads
bigger heads = smarter
smaller heads = inferior/ not so smart or as bright
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he started to question his procedures and if subconsciously he was measuring the
smarter students head in a way to allow them to have bigger heads
was he selectively choosing people he knew would be brighter to find people who
would confirm his findings
believed scientists should be objective and said he may not be as objective as he
thought he should be
did a blind study to overcome researchers bias
another researcher does the measurements who has no idea who the smart people
are or what they were looking for
the grad students found there was absolutely no difference between those with larger
heads and smaller heads
Intelligence Quotient
1904
developed tool to ascribe mental age to individuals
mental age
age associated with the last tasks performed
Wanted to find a method to identify those children who might be struggling in school and
might need extra help to be put into special education class to improve. Assembled a
series of task with basic reasoning skills. Each task had an age level assigned to it and
would increase in difficulty with the age assigned to it.
Binet’s Intentions
not a test of innate intelligence: because intelligence is not a single measurable thing
like height or weight
to identify children who need special help: felt that these tests should only be used as
a rough guide to identify those who should be put into special education classes/
practical purpose for this
not to identify children with superior intelligence
focus on providing assistance and not identifying causes of why the individual didnt
score as highly as another individual
Dangers of IQ testing:
culturally bias:
immigrants may not know what these questions are asking
self-fulfilling prophecy:
may get a number attached to intelligence in a subject and may just discourage
individuals
doesn’t count towards your marks so what is the point in trying for it?
teachers having access to information may start to treat individuals differently
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