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Midterm

CRM 2310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Peer Pressure, Utility Knife, Major Crimes


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 2310
Professor
Erin Mc Cuaig
Study Guide
Midterm

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CRM2310A
Mid-Term 1 Notes
Community Intervention in criminology can therefore consist of many things. To name but some:
-Community corrections (both security and therapeutic ends)
-Policing and surveillance methods: Community policing goals, forming good relationships
to reduce fear and gain trust and cooperation with citizens.
-Restorative and preventative approaches: Circle sentencing, victim-offender mediation,
diversion programs for young people, neighbourhood watch program.
-Building social capital: Some families that lost fathers due to incarceration, so the lower class
citizens don’t get community support as much as those who’s family members aren't in jail.
-Re-entry and rehabilitation: Public security and safety. Trying to re-integrate them into the
community. Community housing as well for re-entry.
Author critically examines notion of community and linkage to criminology:
-Religion, online, workplace, university, etc…
-Criminal interest and identity
Historical Frames of Conceptualization
Social network analytic approach:
Community is Lost:
-Impact of urbanization, industrialization, and we have a social distance. Even with technology,
people feel safer online than real life.
-Based on Chicago School
Community is Saved:
-Not lost, just need more research
-Believes that urbanization is not the reason for collapse
-Based on the research of the 1950s and 1960s such as the Gans’s Urban Villages and the social
participation studies
Community is Liberated:
-More freedom such as transportation and cellphones
-Based on the 1960s and 1970s notions of a “community without propinquity” and
“community of limited liability”
*Crimes can be measured by density. More people, more likely to increase crime rate and there
will be less space to fit into prisons.
*Sex offender example is important because they are most likely to reoffend and they are hard to
accept back into the community.
Why must we consider the current political climate when exploring community intervention in
criminology?
-We need to see the interest level

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CRM2310A
Mid-Term 1 Notes
-War on Crime in Canada: There has been a shift in the past 10 years that presented crime as a
significant issue, but what we know is that crime has been decreasing. However, the seniors
still fear crime.
Transformation agenda (2008)
$478.8 million budget/conservative government
Area focus:
-Trying to increase prisoners accountability and rights.
-Making them earn their rights rather than just getting it freely.
War on drugs in prisons and visitation:
-Drugs in jail is increasing the risk of illnesses
-Visitors use to smuggle drugs into jail so they invented the “Plexi-glass” (glass window) to
talk through. The concern is that the community is bringing them in so the target are families.
-Most drugs are caught from the community, very little from businesses/institutions
-Scanning machines were mostly able to detect cocaine and hardly any other kind of drugs
-Increasing the amount of dogs to detect drugs
Statutory release: (Mandatory Supervision)
-Gradually moving down from high security to medium security to low security then parole
-Letting the offender out at 2/3 of serving their sentence (parole), still supervise, then bring
them back in.
-Argument/criticism that it is not safe at 2/3, why cant we keep them in until they are done?
WED (Warning Expiry Date) keeping them until the end of their sentence.
-Problems with letting them out after fully completing their sentence is that they wouldn't be on
supervision anymore, no half-way housing or no re-integration, and therefore returning to
crime (recidivism)
Implications for Community Interventions
Reduced budgets for community corrections/helping agencies:
-More needs than ever before (e.g. half-way housing, treatment services, etc..)
-Concurrent illnesses and needs from both men and women
More prisoners released without supervision/WED:
-Increases risk of recidivism.
Deterioration of familial and community relations from curtailments of visitation:
-Having access to their parent and seeing them. It can also inspire to commit change.

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CRM2310A
Mid-Term 1 Notes
Community Policing
The Professional Model of Police Work (military model): Based on the 3 R’s
3 R’s:
Rapid Response:
-Able to respond to calls quickly and effectively.
-Hierarchy - Faster response to major crimes and slower response to minor crimes.
Reactive Investigation:
-Reactive rather than proactive - only respond when their is an issue.
Random Patrol (watch system):
-Keeping an eye out for the community.
Effectiveness:
-The idea that the prevention side is symptomatic - addiction, poor economy, gang activity.
-Turning a crime for your own support. Ex: Stealing to sell and make money
Limits:
-Not showing a significant impact to reduce or prevent crime
Clearance Rate (the catch):
-Identified and secured a suspect by officers Ex: detained
-Not necessarily convicted
-Measurement of police performance
-Not fully effective, just because you are apprehended doesn't mean you are convicted
Crime Rates:
-Sexual assault, victim blaming, abuse - these don't get reported as much to protect someone or
other various reasons
-Trust
-If crime rate increases, police feel that they have poor performance, but in reality, crime rates
have gone up because they are out there on full force detaining and convicting criminals. Low
rate (according to the citizens) means that officers are doing a good job but that is not
necessarily true.
*Community policing came out in the mid 1980’s
Defining Community Policing:
-A philosophy of polling centred on police-community partnerships and problem solving
Criticisms:
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