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HSS1100 lecture notes.odt

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
HSS1100
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
MICROBIOLECTURE 2 JAN 17 13The two types of immunities go hand in hand to protect us from infectious diseasesthe simpler one is the non specific immunity or the innate immunitythe pH of the skin is not ideal for most microorganismsthe dryness and the acidic environment are not suitable for the bacteriaalso the temperatures are not suitable for the bacteria because it forces the bacteria to adapt sweat is antibacterialeverytime you sweat the bacteria that is sitting onyou skin is not allowed to multiply or is washed offcilia hair like membranes in your lungs remove or knock off the invading organismslysozymes kill the bacteria in your eyes they can be found in the tearsthe better the body can use the substances like iron in your body the less of the substances are left for the bacteria to use A competition between the antigens and the pathogensnon specific because they will attack anything that is foreign PMNstype of white blood cellthe immune system cannot differentiate between good or bad foreign substancesif it sees that oit is foreign then it will attack it it does not only fight bad bacteria but it will fight ANY bacteriaadaptive immunity pathogen specific immunity will recogize only certain types of pathogens and attack themhumoral immunity is based on B cellsantibodies are the key in the human immune systemthe T cells in the thallymus together make up the cell mediated systemantibodies are produced by B cellsantigens are usually proteins anything that simulate antibody protectionsanti bodies have a Y shaped structure the stem of the Y is the conserved regionthe tip of the Y allows it to bind on to a specific antigenthere is cross linking in the antigens due to the shape of the Y protein and over time they are killed off because they are unable to function because they bind to eachother so much that they get tangledImmugobolin G can cross the placenta from the mother ot the developing new bormIgD role is unknownIgA usually found in body fluids tears saliva milk etc It is made out of two of the Y structurestherefore it is more efficient in binding the bacteria IgM even more complicated there are 5 molecules joined together that gives them 10 binding sitesIgE often involved in hypersensitivity and allergic reactionsno two B cells are identical No two antibodies are the sameclonoselection theory the selection of the antigen and the B cells that fit together perfectly Also called the lock and key systemlatent periodreplicate through mitosisthe B cell remembers the antigen that it has attached to beforethe secondary response would be triggered again and then the latent or the lag period will be activatedtherefore you get instantaneous protection the influenza virus changes every season thus we get the flue every seasonserological reaction doing a simple blood testfor blood test you can have premade antibodies that tells you what type of blood the person has when the antigens react with certain types of antigenssometimes it is not easy to culture bacteriaif theere is a virus in the body then there will be a high level of antibodies in the persons bodythe CMI does not involve B cells but it involves T cellstherefore it doesn not involve antibodies that re created by the B cellsvuruses and parasites are intracellular patrhogensthey need to get inside the cell in rder to carry out their life cyclebut bacteria can survive outside a host cell and can carry out their life cycle outside of the host cellT cells go and kill of the whole cells that are carrying the intracellular pathogens called the killer T cellsthe humoral immunity system that is the most effective in the bacterial infectionsthe CMI is more critical in the viral and parasitic infectionsthe immune system can only tell the difference between self and non selfwhen theere is an organ transplant the immune system might attack the organ called the organ transplant rejectionthus the patient that is due to undergo organ transplant is given an autoimmune system suppressantmost common known allergens are food allergensmost frequently nuts and shell fishas we get exposed to more and more antigens you start to get more and more cross reactions that increase the possibility pf the hypersensitivity pr allergic reactionsautoimmune diseases when the body starts attacking itself ex type 1 diabetes rheumatoid arthiritus etcIMMUNITYtwo types of immunizationsPassive immunization in this case you give the patience premade antibodies Only time ou would do this is when the person sufferring from the disease is very dangerous and fatal And the patient does not have enough time to kill off the infection on their ownexotonsins it s a neurotoxin botulism You have hours to treat this infection ot the person can die within hoursthe human body will reject animal antibodiesthey are all difficult to produce and are all very expensivepassive immunization is very rare and only used in very critical situationsactive immunization it is longer lasting than the passive immunizationactive stimulates the immune system by the administration of antigensviruses require a living cell in order for them to grow and multiplybecause viruses are intracellular most of the drugs cannot interfere in the protection of the host cellvaccinaitng the population is a better way to protect the people from viral infections instead of giving then antiviral drugs
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