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PHI 1101 Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Chapter 3Evaluating ArgumentsArgument EvaluationWhen an argument shows that its conclusion is worth accepting we say that the argument is goodWhen an argument fails to do so we say that the argument is badBut there are different ways for an argument to be good or bad because there are different types of argumentsTwo kinds of argumentsDeductive argumentAn argument intended to provide logically conclusive support for its conclusiontheir premises are meant to guarantee the conclusion28Nondeductive ArgumentAn argument intended to provide probable but not conclusive support for its conclusionthe premises are meant to confer some high degree of probability on the conclusionDeductive Arguments1 A deductive argument is intended to provide conclusive support for its conclusionFinal definitive undeniable supportThe structure of some arguments is deductiveWhen arguments structured this way are good they guarantee their conclusionAn example If whales are mammals they have lungs Whales are mammals Therefore whales have lungs This relies on the form or pattern of the argument p 29ExamplesIn each case if the premises offered really are true then the conclusion must also be trueAll philosophers are obscure Schelling is a philosopher So Schelling must be obscureJohn is taller than Aimee Aimee is taller than Melissa So John is taller than MelissaHarold is Matildas son So Matilda is Harolds mother This is valid because of the definitions of the terms Compare to p32
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