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Business Ethics Mid.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI2397
Professor
Jon Miller
Semester
Fall

Description
Business Ethics Mid-term Review September 4th, 2013 Intro Business success and/or Individual success = How to determine it? How to be successful Ethics = Greek word "Ethos" = Character What should I do? Ethics = personal choices Morality = codes of behaviour for a society Goal in life is happiness • Meaningful existence • What is a meaningful existence? What is business? • Whenever you offer a product or service to another Business and ethics began together Standard of living Quality of life Meaningful life = doing what is what you want to do September 9th, 2013 Intro Continued Epicurus—3rd century B.C. Greek Epictetus—1st centuryA.D. Greek Epicurus: • Garden outside city • meaningful life is when you find your own life • Happiness: o Money for your basic needs—no luxuries o friends o Freedoms (freedom to think) Epictetus: • meaningful life is when you are a part of something see both in business Start-ups = Epicureans • Think outside the box Terminology: • Amoral: it is a choice that does not involve ethics • Immoral: bad • Is/ought fallacy: David Hume—188th century o you cannot derive value from fact • Aesthetic: what is beauty • wants vs. rights: law tells you what you can do o ethics is about what you can do September 11th, 2013 Consequentialist Ethical Theory: pp. 85–146 "All under heaven" • For the greater good • consequentialist Epictetus and Epicurus both consequentialist What is the best happiness? • it is the best happiness for the most people • act as though to create the greatest good for the greatest number of people Bentham: • Pain/pleasure • avoid pain/seek pleasure • we should always be seeking pleasure Naturalism: • morality is grounded in the pain/pleasure principle • animals/nature is included with humans with regard to morality John Stuart Mill: • Would you rather be a content pig or an unhappy human? o Happy pig = no inner sense of human dignity • All pleasures are not equal • intellectual pleasures are higher than base pleasures Bentham—greatest quantity Mill—greatest quality Mill: Happiness is not an abstract concept • anything that makes you happy is god • your happiness (your choice in order to be happy must not contradict the principle of utility Benevolent Utilitarianism: • Put the greatest good above your own happiness Mill combines utilitarian rule with golden rule Rule Utilitarianism (John Rawls) • you must never break your word Existential criticism: • Robert Nozick • we prefer to be a certain way than to feel a certain way September 13th, 2013 Deontology Ethical Theory: pp. 147–167 Deon = Greek for duty Rights, equality, justice Natural rights Kantian ethics Utilitarianism vs. Kantian Ethics What is morality? how can one be moral? free choice = free will = free reason as a guide to our decisions If morality is guided by feelings then justice cannot exist Any kind of injustice could exist Right and wrong (Deontology) vs. Good and bad (utilitarianism/consequentialist) Kant proposed we did not need super human authority to find morality biggest criticism is that it ignores consequences in individual cases (lying to someone who will commit a crime) Kant believes no morality if ends justifies the means Categorical imperative: 1. Treat all people as ends, not means 2. treat all personal maxims as universal laws Kant says to never consider the consequences of your actions Peter singer 20th cent. aussie September 18th, 2013 Egoism Ethical Theory: pp. 61–83 Ego, self, I Ayn Rand = selfishness Adam Smith—wealth of nations Richard Dawkins—The Selfish Gene Selfishness vs. Self-interest Altruism—helping others Myth of Gyges Plato—the Republic (4th century B.C. Greek): • dialogues • Glaucon and Thrasymachus vs. Socrates • Isn't better to be selfish in this world? • why care about other people? • Why be a just person? Myth of Gyges: • about a guy who finds a ring—allows him to become invisible to all • Man becomes evil (G and T use to say): o It is better to be an evil man who everyone thinks is good, than the reverse o we all admire to a certain extent the unjust, successful man and despise the unsuccessful good man o the bad man can always alleviate their bad conscience by doing religious rituals— even the Gods support the evil man o Only week and frightened people who choose to live a just life • Socrates' response: o Justices function is the best society is when all the people work together o our behavior is not based on reward/punishment. Is based upon empathy Richard Dawkins: • Nice Guys Finish First 1985 • Self-interest can mean helping others ReciprocalAltruism—you help me, and I'll help you In a computer simulation, Reciprocal altruism beats Golden rule and Selfishness—still self- interest Adam Smith—the best economic result is when in a society each person chooses to follow their self-interest Theory of moral sentiments Wealth of Nations John Nash—Beautiful mind—shows that working together is better Courage = self-sacrifice Cowardice = selfishness Ayn Rand was for cowardice James Rachels—Egoism and Moral Skepticism Joseph Butler—18th century Selfish person is not going to feel good about helping others It's only the non-selfish person who would feel good helping others Psychological Egoism and Altruism Ethics—choice—normative • What should I do? • Why do I do the things that I do? • Why do I make the choices I make? • Human nature, psychology • Meta-ethics—Greek word "greater, therefore greater than ethics • Impossible to confirm or disprove Psychological—Hobbs: 17th century English—Leviathan Ayn Rand—Ethical Egoism—Selfishness September 20th, 2013 Virtue Ethics Ethical Theory: pp. 299–336 Not about actions, about character What sort of person should I be? Plato/Socrates—four main/chief virtues: 1. wisdom—Mind 2. Fortitude—Moral courage (body) 3. Temperance—Tolerance of all things (desire) 4. Justice—Balance of the first three virtues Virtue lies in the middle of 2 extremes —Aristotle Foolish (No self-interest)—Courage (self-sacrifice)—Cowardice (selfishness) Golden mean o rules in Virtue Ethics to tell you how to be a good person Moral virtues cannot be taught Intellectual virtues can be taught • math, reading To become courageous is to do courageous things Self-interest + altruism = reciprocalAltruism Courage, honest, trustworthiness Robert Loudon: 1. It only looks at the long-term 2. Some types of actions are evil in themselves 3. how can we judge a person's character, except through their character? 4. there is a style over substance problem? 5. How to deal with relativism How can you be virtuous if your nature is to conform? Bystander Effect. September 25th, 2013 Divine Command Theory Ethical Theory: pp. 37–59 I get my morals/ethics from religion Natural religion—philosophical argument Revealed religion—Miracles, etc. DCT: How does reason connect with faith • How do we interpret God's Message? Greek Pantheon—Zeus, etc. Who delivers Message?: • Hermes • Angel Gabriel in Judaic Trilogy Theories of interpretation—Hermeneutics Bible—Story of Abraham = Faith is obedience Pla
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