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PSY 2105 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Helicopter Parent, Moral Realism, Parenting Styles

Course Code
PSY 2105
Stuart Hammond
Study Guide

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Mid-Term Review
October 25, 2014
PSY2105- Child Development, Midterm Review
Week 2- Emerging Adulthood
1) To say emerging adulthood is demographically distinct is to say that people in EA are
constantly changing, and thus their demographics are not as consistent, there is
demographic variability that reflects the exploratory and experimental aspects of EA.
They do not fit into established groups
2) Subjectively distinct: meaning that emerging adults feel as though they are adults in
certain areas of their lives but they cannot possibly be in others, they feel ambiguous and
as if they do not fit into society’s definitions, the roleless role, they have no name for the
stage they are in
3) Volitional Period: the act of making a conscious decisions, making decisions that are your
own, these choices are seen as very important to EAs, having choice and agency
4) EAs and feelings about their future:
a. 96% of EAs agreed that someday they will get to where they want to be in life
b. 95 remain confident about their future
oPsychosocial Moratorium: How you feel about yourself and your place in the
social world. role in society, put a stop on something temporarily (moratorium),
refusal to define our role (not knowing where you fit in)
5) Contributors to the emergence of EA
a. The need for more/higher education
b. Large amounts of debt
c. Increase in age of first marriage
d. Age of tasks occurring later
e. Change in economy
f. Premarital sex and cohabitation is now accepted
g. Adulthood being viewed with ambivalence
h. Parental encouragement to achieve what they want/ achieve their dreams
i. Length of life (age of death has raised)
j. Changing roles for women

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Mid-Term Review
October 25, 2014
k. Later retirement
l. Reduced pressure to marry
m. Technology
6) Unlikely to contribute to EA (according to Arnett)
a. Biology of brain is same, doesn’t think it has changed, he believes our biology is
not capable of causing EA. No neurological aspect
b. Dependence on parents does not contribute
i. Helicopter parents
7) EA: Stage vs. process models
a. Not stage like as it is not universal, but does have a start and a finish, age,
b. Stage like because it is universal in industrialized communities
c. Process like ongoing and continuous, relative to certain processes going on.
because certain qualities come and go
d. Moving to thinking of things as processes
Week 3-Family Life
1) Sociocultural approach
Social systems are emphasized
Theorists agree that parental models can be important contributors to
behaviour, that children’s cognitive capacities affect what they bring and
what they take away from socialization encounters.
Development is embedded within and is inseparable from sociocultural
context, for them development is socialization
Roles of family and peers in children’s development are emphasized
Values and beliefs that exist in certain cultures influence learning
Certain social values and factors, the authoritarian parenting style can be
beneficial in this aspect
Learning through everyday activities
o Environmental learning theory
Reward, punishment, imitation/creativity
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