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PSY 1101 INTRODUCTION TO PHSYCOLOGY class 1 finall.docx

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Chapter 1PSY1101 Sept 5 2012Intro notes Psychology is a scienceEmotional processesMental processesPhysioI the need for psychological scienceA WhyA1 Limits of intuition intuition can be misleading errors in judgement etc Notes A2 Limits of common sense result of experience learning acquired knowledge etc Notes and book Hindsight BiasI knew it all along phenomenonConclusion was so obvious we could have forecast itHuman tendency to think positivelyKnowledge of factsA3 Overconfidence tendency to over exaggerate our knowledge more confident than is accurate notesA4 Illusory Correlation tendency to see relationships where there are none disregard any event that is not in our beliefs remember the events that support our beliefs better notes and bookA5 Perceiving order in random events uncertainty makes us nervous we look for notes Psych 1101 September 10 2012B The Scientific Attitude notes objective 1 in chapter reviewsummary at the end Characteristics of Critical Thinking Curiosity ask questions and seek answers with passionOpenMindednessSkepticism balances openness examine all pieces of evidence objectivelyAwareness of your own biases and hidden agendasHumility need to be humble remember others can contribute to us accept that we are going to make mistakes and we have to get our ego out of the wayCautiousness we do not prove or disprove we confirm or not confirm our hypothesisC The Scientific Method NOTES Any field that uses the scientific method is a science psych includedSteps of the Scientific MethodObservation casual observation has to become systematic observationTheory purpose is to summarize organize and integrate the observations that you have made Theory is an attempt explanation it is not factHypothesis Testing scientifically explore one of the hypothesis from the theory Hypothesis is a tentative statement concerning the relationship between 2 variablesRules to follow to accept the study as scientificWe must operationally define our concepts very precisely clearly concretely how he is measuring his variablesEx Optimism seeing the glass half fullOptimism obtaining a score of 50 and above on the Haddad Optimism Scale operational definitionReplicationGenerate or refine hypothesis based on our results and the process starts overII Types of Research Studies1Descriptive Research NOTES A1 Purpose systematically observe and describe behaviour as it exists We look for what where when but not whyA2 Case Study Definition We study 1 single person or a very small group of people and we study them in depth Advantage Good if we are dealing with something complex or something we know nothing about Good for rare casesDisadvantage Sample size is so small so you cannot generalizeInfo can be interpreted through our biases to help tape record video tape have other researchers look in order to avoid biasesA3 Survey Definition Asking a large sample of people questions Representative Sample Must be representative for it to be accepted Ex Uottawa Students are the population but a sample of 1500 students is extracted Your sample must closely reflect the characteristics of your population How to get a representative samplingRandom SamplingRandom Sampling Chance and chance only to determine who participates in survey Every single person in the population has an equal chance of participating in the survey Advantages of Surveys Can give to a large sample easy to administer reach people who usually dont usually participate in studies illiterate immobile etc Disadvantages of Surveys participants may lie on purpose or not some people misjudge themselves how you word your answers makes a difference to what answer you will get Application to Real Life Generalizing from unrepresentative samplesvivid casesFalse consensus effect our tendency to exaggerateoverestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs experiences or preferencesSurveys can be descriptive or correlationalA4 Naturalistic ObservationDefinition a form of research where the researcher leaves their live and does her research in the natural environmentreal worldAdvantage Real time real world spontaneous You may make new discoveries concerning other ways things are done that you had not thought of or discovered Sometimes this is the only way to get the info ex Sexual abuse and depressionYou dont bring them to the lab and abuse themDisadvantages Even if you are not actively interfering your very own presence could alter their actions You need to blend in Researcher biaswe may interpret the results through our own biasesexpectations use recordings and other observers2 Correlational Research notesB1 Purpose To scientifically investigate if there is a systematic relationship between 2 or more variables Ex Between attending class and GPAAsk 3 questions when doing corr Research see belowB2 Do they covary If one variable changes does the other one too B3 In what direction Positive Correlation both variables change in the same direction One goes up the other goes up or one goes down the other goes down Negative Correlation the variables change in the opposite direction One goes up the other goes down and vice versa Ex Depression goes up happiness goes downPsych Sept 12 2012B4 To What ExtentCorrelation Coefficient represented by r It ranges from 0 to 1 1 means negative 1 means positive O means no relationship the closer r is to 0 the weaker the relationshipR13 weakR 59r88 strong negative correlationB5 AdvantagesDisadvantagesstAdvantages Excellent 1 stepgreat with there are no other options describes and predicts When one variable is known the other can be predicted with a certain level of confidenceDisadvantages We absolutely cannot infer causality All we know is that there is a relationship although it may not be cause and effect C Experimental Research NOTES AND BOOK C1 Introduction we describe we predict and we are able to research and talk about cause and effect research This is the only type of research that allows you to draw a cause and effect conclusionWe must use independent and dependent variables Independent Variable causes the change in the other variable It influences the other This is the variable that the researcher manipulates This is the variable that the researcher is going to measureDependent Variable This is the variable that is being influence and changed by the ind Variable Ex Lipitor lowers cholesterol cholesterol is dv and Lipitor is ivGreen tea boosts immune function green tea is iv and immune function is dvWhy experimental reasearch allows cause and effect conclusionsThe researcher manipulates the ind variable and the researcher control all other ind variablesC2 Manipulate the independent variable The researcher has to create at least 2 levels of the ind VariableEx Does aerobic exercise lower the level of depression IV Exercise DV depression Researcher divides people into 2 groups randomly one exercises the other doesnt therefore there are 2 levels The group that does not exercise not exposed to IV is the controlled group Experimental group is exposed to the IV There can be more than 2 groupsC3 Control all Other Independent Variables C31 Control Known Independent Variables ex Quality of living sleep medication therapy etcC32 Control unknown independent Variables They do random assignments by chance and chance only Every singly participant in the study has an equal chance of being in the control or experimental group They use random assignments to ensure that participants are similar in most ways except for the ind variable that is being examined Purpose of Control to be reasonably confidence that our results are due to the IV we are studyingC33 Placebo EffectPlaceboa substance that is inert no therapeutic valuePlacebo Effect Scientifically documented It is our tendency to feel better once we take a drug or treatment even though the treatment is fake C34 BlindDouble Blind ProceduresBlindThe subject participating in the study is kept blindignorant They dont know if they are taking the placeboor not and therefore their behaviours could be affected
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