PAP2320 Lecture 3

5 Pages
128 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Public Administration
Course
PAP2320
Professor
Joshua Zaato
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 3 (Jan 14 ): Public and private sectors compared Management is management. Or is it?  Similar to the politics-administration dichotomy, the public-private conundrum goes back a long way in the study and practice of PA o In modern times, the lines between the public and the price sectors are getting closer and blurred  PA have copied, imported, and transferred theories, ideas, and best practices from the private sector into the public sector  Through privitization, contracting out, and public-private partnerships, the two sectors have become even closer  Finally, professionals from both the private and public sectors interact at a personal and professional levels, attend conferences together, and share ideas Difference Mandates and Goals  Private sector is committed to the bottom line while the public sector is geared towards the provision of public goods and services  Tenure of office is shorter in the public sector compared to the private sector due to the frequent electoral cycles  Goal ambiguity and targets measurement is another difference in both sectors o Anti-smoking policies and financial aid to tobacco farmers o How do you measure peace, security  Another difference is the merit principle and broader HR management in both sectors  The provision of public goods and the free rider effect Results and performance in both sectors Barbara Carroll has identified 5 problems associated with determining and measuring results in the public and private sectors (2000)  Publicness: If the right result is difficult to decide on in the private sector it becomes infinitely more difficult in the public sector because of the nature of public goods  Indivisibility: Is about those things which cannot be divided, the things tha you cannot have just a little of – defence, transportation systems  Exclusion/ Non-exclusion: Is the impossibility of excluding people from consuming the service or good o Private schools can choose not to teach less bright or disruptive students, while publics schools don’t have that leisure  Spillovers: Are the negative externalities that can have an impact which is not felt for many years. For ex: Immigration The business of Gov’t is not business  Despite the above stated differences, Gov’t also strive to be efficient and many reforms have been instituted to achieve efficiency in the public sector  As a result, efficiency, efficacy, and economy (3E’s) have become core modern values of PA in Canada o Public managers are being held accountable for the 3Es  Apart from the 3Es, Gov’ts have a traditional role to provide services to citizens in a fairm equitable, transparent, and accountable manner o Balancing the 3Es and governance concerns therefore produces a paradoxical situation  There is also the problem of how to measure gov’t programs, how to cost them and what value to attach to their deniability o The free-rider effect Professionalism in PA  An efficient and effective public service therefore relies on a professional public service that is well trained, motivated and committed to the tenants of the profession  At confederation in 1867, appointment to and promotions within the public sector was based on Patronage  It is “The practice of rewarding loyal supporters, friends, and relatives with gov’t positions o Officeholders under this system are appointed based on whom they know not what they know  The Civil service act of 1918 was aimed at fundamentally changing and replacing this system with a merit based alternative o The Act also created the Civil Service commission which is today the Public Service Commission  Further reforms emphasising competence, training education, and affirmative action on gender, language race and disability were introduced progressively Behaving and acting ethically  One of the main differences between the public and private sectors are the core values and ethics that undergird the public service  Because of the immense discretional power and resources at their disposal, public servants are held to a very high standard of ethical behavior  But what is ethical behaviour? o “Ethics involve the study, implementation and enforcement of the activities designed to promote ‘proper’ behavior and to punish ‘improper’ behavior”  Through laws, regulation, peer pressure, and socialization, various checks have been established to promote and ensure ethical behaviour in the public sector  Most of these laws and codes of conduct are instituted in response to a scandal in the public service The Conflict between efficiency and Democratic Governance  From the above, an inherent conflict exist between o Public sector norms and values vis-a-vis the need for the 3Es, and o What the proper role of the state is and which values the state should project  As a result questions about the proper role and size of the state have occupied the minds of politicians, philosophers, theologians, and scholars for ages  The three key historical and ideological developments are important in explaining these critical questions about the role of the state. These are: o The minimalist state o Keynesian Welfare State o The Neo-conservative state The minimalist state in Canada  At confederation in 1867, the Canadian state was a Minimalist state  “The prevailing ideology was a laissez-faire attitude that suggested the role of the state be limited to the national defense and the provision of infrastructure
More Less

Related notes for PAP2320

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit