22. Give a broad and more restrictive definition of pulse crops.
Pulse crops (broad)
o Annual leguminous crop yielding 1-12 seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod
Pulse crops (restricted)
o Crops harvested solely for dry seeds
Which Canadian province is at the heart of pulse production?
What are its main advantages for quality pulse production?
○ Cold winters and dry summers limit disease and insect problems and help to keep
production costs down.
○ As cereal crops grown on the Prairies are relatively low in value, pulse crop production
provides a promising alternative in spite of higher production costs.
Give a broad definition of root crops.
● root crops: things that grow underground.
In terms of physical geography, in which environment did potato production historically thrived and
where has it been expanding rapidly in the more recent past?
● historically thrived in south american heartland in the high andes, lately: in the warm humid
tropical asian lowlanduring the dry season
What nickname did Russian peasants first give to the potato?
● devil’s apple
According to Adam Smith, what was the single greatest disadvantage of the potato?
● the potato couldn’t be stored or carried over to the following year because tubers rotted.
Who ordered his peasants to grow potatoes as an insurance against cereal crop failure?
● Prussia’s Frederick the Great
How did increase potato production historically improved indirectly protein intake in Western Europe?
○ potatoes areextremely nutritious and a very “cheap” source of calories, easy to
store and were popular as feed for livestock during winter
23. Give a concise definition of 'vegetable.'
● Edible plant or part of a plant, other than sweet fruit or seeds, which are typically leaf, stem or
root of the plant
Technically, what is it that makes a tomato a fruit? ● it is developed in the ovary in the base of the flower, and it carries the seeds of the plant.
Which country now produces nearly half of the world's vegetable supply?
● China produces 47% of vegetable supply
What are the main hindrances to the expansion of horticultural productions in less advanced
● lack of market access, market information, and many biological factors
What explains the rise of consumer demand for horticultural products in advanced economies in the
● the desire for year-round availability and increased diversity of foods, as well as a growing
awareness of the relationship between diet and health all contribute to the increase
What are the main barriers to getting the horticultural production of small-scale farmers on
● quality and reliability demands of supermarkets, and the increasing attention to food quality
and safety present in food trade, coupled with and expansion in the # of non-tariff measures
that developed countries apply to agricultural products.
Give concise definitions of pollination, self-pollination and cross-pollination.
● Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male part of the flower to the female
● self- pollination: pollinate with their own p(a.k.a: self-fruitful)
● cross pollination: The transfer of pollen from one variety to a different variety of the same type
Why have crabapples become increasingly popular with apple producers?
● for pollination purposes, crab apples have larger bloom times than other species and is easily
List two of the three most important cucurbits.
● cucumbers, melons, watermelons.
24. What is mainly extracted from oilseeds?
• Oil: Lipid materials derived from plants (liquid at room temp)
What is the main Canadian contribution to the oilseed industry?
• Canada invented & is the single biggest producer of canola
Where are most Canadian sunflowers grown?
• Southern Manitoba
What are the main obstacles that Southern American soy producers have had to contend with? • the poor roads and rail infrastructure + economic instability and environmental concerns
Which soybean variety is credited with significantly extending the range of soybean production in
• The Maple arrow - earlier maturity & improved tolerance of cooler climates
Why and how do soybeans need to be processed before being fed to animals?
• in their raw state they contain enzymes (known as tripsin inhibitors) that limit the body’s ability to
use the bean’s protein therefore we roast or process to destroy the enzymes
What other alternative approach to using soybeans as animal food is currently being examined?
• since the protein is the more valuable feed component, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada is focusing
on breeding high-protein, low-oil varieties specifically for this type of processing
• efforts are underway to breed varieties with low or no tripsin inhibitor levels so that soybeans can
be fed without processing
25. List two (2) historical advantages of sugar.
• cheap to transport
• easy to store
List two (2) long-standing or more recent goals of sugarcane breeders.
• tolerance to herbicides
• rich in sucrose
How did sugar cane breeders facilitate the mechanization of harvesting sugarcane?
• bred varieties the achieved uniform height & standd erect thus allowing machines to cut and top
(remove the inflorescence) with little waste.
Why must sugarcane stems be processed quickly?
• to avoid loss of juice hence sucrose & revenues. Mills need to be close to fields
• breeding can’t alter perishable nature of stems
Why has the last stage of sugar refining historically taken place close to final markets as opposed to
production area (list two factors)?
• transport in leaky ships meant risk of contamination from sea water
• crystals coalesced from hot humid conditions long voyages Why is this still typically the case today (list two factors)?
• Refineries not limited by harvests: can operate year-round by buying supplies from producers
worldwide according to season and price
• close to & know markets
26. What is entomophagy?
● people eating insects as food
According to the FAO, for how many people is it a regular component of the traditional diet?
● at least 2 billion people
List three (3) especially relevant issues in the twenty-first century that, according to the FAO, make it
● rising cost of animal protein,
● food and feed security
● environmental pressures
List two (2) anthropogenic factors that explain why it is threatened in some regions.
● wildfire and habitat degradation
According to the Pew Commission, what were the three main steps taken to streamline the process of
raising animals for food?
1. standardized feed for rapid weight gain and uniformity
2. genetic selection to accentuate traits,
ex. leaness, creating uniform meat products
3. mechanization of feeding, watering, and other husbandry activities.
27. According to the Breeds of Livestock Committee of Oklahoma State University, why is it misleading
to pretend that animals only produce one pound or less of human food for each three pounds of plant
● this inefficiency only applies to plants and plant products that human can untilize
● over 2/3rd of the feed fed to animals are undersirable or unsuited for human food
○ if we convert inedible products into edible = more food for humans, less competition
According to Dennis Avery, when did wool fabric appear and how do we know when sheep became
● appeared in 3350 bc >> thats when the languages started to have words for wool.
● patterns in ship bones show:
○ sheep were raised primarily for food as they were butchered at a young age ○ then domestication of sheep (5:1 ratio) - classic woold sheep harvesting ratio
■ slaughtered sheeps were older: retired wool producers
List two (2) factors each for the general pros and cons of eating meat versus plant food.
• Pros: less toxic & most plants more tedious to prepare
• Cons: spoils quickly & contains dangerous parasites
List 3 advantages of domesticating (as opposed to hunting) animals.
• transportation, milk, manure
28. What were the three main different environments in which pigs used to be raised?
• forest, farm, & cities
What is pannage?
• pasturing or feeding pigs in a forest
List two (2) historical advantages and two (2) historical disadvantages in keeping pigs as opposed to
• Pros: rapid growth & omnivorous (organic waste & surplus crops)
• Cons: didn’t travel well & no primary non-meat uses (dairy, transportation, manure, etc)
According to the UN FAO, what is the biggest single factor affecting farm animal diversity? Why?
• globalization of livestock markets
• intensive livestock production based on a few species & breed of high-input, high output animals;
29. What are 'broilers'?
• Chickens bred and raised specifically for meat production
List three reasons why, according to proponents of the practice, it is preferable to keep them indoors
rather than to let roam roam outside.
• Health monitoring more cost-effective
• to reduce exposure to harsh weather & resulting diseases
• to reduce exposure to diseases of wild animals
What are 'layers'? • chickens bred to produce eggs
According to defenders of the practice, why should they remain in cages?
• to prevent cannibalism, fighting, increases in diseases
Why does most bee(hives) transport take place at night?
• bees only fly out during the day
30. In the world of fisheries, what do ITQs stand for?
● individual transferable quotas
How do they work?
● it imposes a maximum limit on the quantity of fish that can be harvested
● With the permit: can catch and sell certain # - permit is sellable to another individual
Assuming that they can be enforced, what is their ultimate goal?
● to limit the harvest to a sustainable level: not to exceed a certain predetermined level
What was historically the main species of fish used in aquaculture (or pisciculture) from China to
● the pond-culture of carp
What percentage of fish consumed globally can now be traced back to aquaculture?
Paradoxically, how does the raising of those fishes place a strain on wild stocks?
● carnivorous breeds like salmon is fed with wild fish. it takes up to 5 lb of wild fish to produce 1 lb
31. What was the largest component of operating expenses for Canadian farmers in 2009?
● $35.3 billion in operating commercial feed was the largest component
What are the traditional ways of preventing soil salinity while irrigating?
1. abundant good-quality water is applied
2. good regional drainage= well-drained soil: rapid & efficient
3. large infusion of fertilizer (to balance the flushing required to keep them salt-free)
How do Molden et al. define 'virtual water'?
● the sum of water used in food production
○ importing commodities saves water required for production
What is their take on food self-sufficiency policy for water-short countries? ● instead of trying to be self-sufficient, water-short countries should import from water abundant
○ difficult since they rely on greatly on their national agriculture sector & lack funding to
buy fom the world markets
What does the old expression 'dying of summer complaint' refer to?
- diarrhea: the disease often becomes prevalent in the summer or in fruit season.
How does food waste differ in advanced and less advanced economies?
4. in advanced economies mostly at consumption stage
(>40% at retail & consumer level) - consumerism society
5. less advanced economies: mostly during early & middle stages of food supply chain
(>40% at post-harvest & processing level)
32. What was historically probably the most important cattle disease?
rinderpest aka cattle plague
What happened to the cattle herds of Europe between 1857 and 1866?
Europe was almost denuded of cattle due to introduction of steam power enabling
shipment of live cattle by rail & sea
What happened in Ethiopia in 1887 and in Africa following years?
Ethiopia lost 95% of cattle & most of human population starved to death
List two (2) of the main measures used historically to control rinderpest in animals.
● large scale vaccination
● surveillance campaigns
Why was Walter Plowright awarded the FAO? s world food prizes in 1999?
• developed the initial live vaccine
In what year was rinderpest officially declared eradicated from the planet?
• 1920’s vaccine breaks through & 1980’s cured; the world is nealy free of rinderpest, only
surviving disease in Somali & Kenya
33. List four (4) advantages that seed producers brought over the old practice of keeping some of one's
seeds for the next growing season.
● new variety ● storage ( protection & availability on demand)
List three (3) traditional ways of fighting agricultural pests other than pesticides.
• rotating crops
• encouraging pests’ natural enemies
• crop diversity patterns
Give a concise definition of a pesticide and of biopesticides.
- Pesticides: any substance intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any
- Biopesticides: certain types of pesticides derived from natural materials, ie. canola oil + baking
What were the two basic assumptions about 'carcinogens' that were the basis for the 1958 Delaney
- Assumptions - carcinogens were rarely found in food
- assumption - carcinogens were put there by humans either purposely through food
additives or inadvertently in the form of pesticide residues
In terms of human dietary intake, what is the proportion of the natural pesticides compared to
synthetic pesticides that are rodent carcinogens?
● natural pesticides are far more abundant in daily dietary items than synthetic pesticides
What was the first substance used to fight powdery and downy mildew in wine growing areas?
● ground sulfur
According to the CropLife Foundation, what would happen to the labour requirements of US
agriculture if there was a movement away from herbicides towards using labour to pull weeds?
● the US would need 72 million( aprox 23% of total populations) additional farmers to maintain
34. What were the three main traditional ways of supplying nitrogen (N) to crops? (Give one concrete
illustration or component of the system for each).
• recycling of organic waste - animal & human waste
• rotations including Nitrogen fixing leguminous grains - beans, peas, lentils, soybeans
• leguminous cover crops plough under - mostly vetches
According to Richard Cowen, what is guano? • accumulated bird dung
Why was it so valuable to agricultural producers?
• rich in nitrate & phosphate
What kind of geographical and biological environment is conducive to its formation?
- low little rain & dense bird population; dry oceanic islands that support very rich fisheries
What are the raw materials used in the most modern ver