Encoding: acquiring a memory
Storage: maintaining a memory in the long term memory store
Retrieval: recalling a memory at a later date
Meta-analytical study: a super study- results from many studies that address one topic
(many studies are combined, to create a summary more reliable study, conclusive,
invariant, presents stable findings)
-Most of these studies are cross-sectional studies: different age groups are tested at
the same point in time.
-Cross sectional studies: show a larger age related differences among age groups in
comparison to a longitudinal study: which is when the same group is tested over
years- shows smaller age related differences.
-WHY? COHORT effect: young and old people differ more than just in age, they differ
in terms of education levels, media exposure/influence- may account for differences-
therefore cross sectional studies may be more advantageous.
-Selective Attrition: occurs in longitudinal studies- may explain why differences
between age groups are smaller- when studies extend over a long period of time,
subjects may drop out. Subjects who drop out, normally are less healthy, less
capable, therefore, the study is left with only a sample of capable people from a
population vs. reality which is a population that contains less and more capable
•Needs to be consider when studying where the real age related differences
•Sensory memory: ex. If we turn a light on and off, the scene is available to us for a
short time, however the image remains in our mind for longer than it physically
appears. Why does the image stay in our mind for a longer duration? It stays long
enough for the nervous system to have time to extract information it needs.
Ex. If images flash on a scene in different batches, and the participant is asked to
determine which image is missing, there is very little difference between old and young
people’s results. Why? If the perception of an image only stayed in our mind for as long as it
is physically present, then one would not be able to figure out what the missing sign is.
However, as long as the interval between the 2 patches of images isn’t too long, then one can
still “see” the full display in their mind, because the first image will stay in the mind while