- Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context
contributes to meaning.
- Aphasia is the disturbance in formulation and comprehension of language.
- Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is an umbrella term that
encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or
writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or
written language. AAC is used by those with a wide range of speech and language
- Occlusion: the manner in which the upper and lower teeth come together when the
mouth is closed
- Stuttering also known as stammering is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech
is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds
-Mixed Hearing Loss: Sometimes a conductive hearing loss occurs in combination with
a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). In other words, there may be damage in the outer or
middle ear and in the inner ear (cochlea) or auditory nerve. When this occurs, the hearing
loss is referred to as a mixed hearing loss.
Total Communication (TC) is an approach to deaf education that aims to make use of a
number of modes of communication such as signed, oral, auditory, written and visual
aids, depending on the particular needs and abilities of the child.
- Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic
pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye(s) and lead to blindness
if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye
- Retina: is a light-sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics
of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same
function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical
and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various
visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve
- Otosclerosis is an abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss.
1) A) The amplitude corresponds to loudness, which is measured in decibels (dB).
- The frequency (number of cycles per second) corresponds to pitch, which is
measured in Hertz (Hz). Frequency will increase as wavelength decreases.
- The timbre corresponds to sound quality. Instead of a perfect sine curve, there may be
a jagged pattern which would have a different sound quality. (Shape of wave).
B) Profound deafness corresponds to a significant loss of at least 90 dB (cannot hear if
the sound is less than 90 dB). There is little to no residual hearing, so human speech
cannot be understood through the ear.
- people who are hard of hearing have deficient hearing but it is somewhat functional.
There is enough residual hearing so there with the help of hearing aids, speech can be
understood and processed through the ear.
- as the audiogram shows, those with normal hearing can hear a wide range of
frequencies and at a minimal loudness (less than 10dB). Those with profound deafness
can also hear at all frequencies but the sound must be not louder (1oodB). Hear to hear
lies somewhere in the middle, with an intermediate loudness for hearing. c) In the oral approach hearing is enhances with hearing aids and cochlear implants.
Children are taught oral English language skills in an inclusive setting. Signing is not
allowed, as it takes away from learning English, as well as creating new barriers, rather
than fostering inclusion. The idea is to “fix their broken ears” and to teach them just the
same as everyone else is taught. FM systems are used to enhance hearing in a classroom
setting where a transmitter wirelessly links the professors voice to a receiver that the
3) A) Tunnel vision is when you have a visual field of less then 20. A person with 20/20
vision and tunnel vision can be legally blind. To be legally blind a person can have