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Lecture 1 (2010 summer semester)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC23H3
Professor
Joyce Parga

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Lecture 1:
Primate Order:
๎€Prosimians
๎€Monkeys
๎€Apes
๎€Humans
Primate Order divides into two groups: anthropoids and prosimians
Anthropoids: a) apes; b) monkeys; c) humans
bigger bodied, bigger brain, smarter, less reliance on smell, more visual communication,
diurnal โ€“ active during day time, slower life history โ€“ longer to sexually mature and live
longer and longer gestation and pregnant length
a)Apes: chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons/siamangs
Great apes: chimps, gorillas and organutans
Lesser apes: gibbons/siamangs
๎€Chimpanzees: common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and Pygmy chimpanzees
(pan paniscus or bonobo); both groups found in multi-male and multi-male
groups; common chimps males are aggressive and dominate/rape females, alpha
is always male and copulation is only for reproduction; pygmy chimps males and
females have egalitarian relationships, and some groups have alpha females,
copulation can be used in various manners and have funny haircut or balding
due to excessive grooming
๎€Gorillas: single-male, multi-female and multi-male, multi-female groups; groups
usually have at least one silverback male which takes care of the group and
prevent infanticide
๎€Organutans (genus name pongo): live semi-solitarily, single males and females
come together to mate or if food is abundant in an area; intense male-male
competition for females and males are way larger and lots of rape; cheek flanges
in males only
๎€Gibbons/siamangs: live in stable male-female pairs, are pair-bonded; thought to
be monogamous, but extra-pair copulation (EPC) happens quite bit
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