chapter 16

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The Sun chap16 y The sun is a star y It is a glowing ball of gas that is held together by its own gravity and powered by nuclear fusion at its centre y This star is undoubtedly like any other star in the universe 3 y Density of the sun is 1400kgm it is similar to that of the jovian planets and one quarter of the earths density y Rotation is measure by timing sunspots and other surface features y Rotates in about a month spins differentially faster at the equator and slower at the poles y Sunspots are only seen around the equator never above or below the altitudes of 60 degrees y Suns temperature is approximately 6000K avg effective temperature Solar structure ySun does not have a solid surfacesun contains no solid material yThe surface that we see photosphere y The thickness of what we see is very thin 500km y Below the photosphere lie the convection zone the radiation zone and the core y Above the photosphere lies the solar atmosphere which consists of the chromospheres the transition zone and corona y In the transitions zone the temperature rises dramatically y Corona turns into a solar wind permeates the entire solar system y Radiation zone is where energy is transported toward the surface by radiation rather than by convection y Core is the sight of powerful nuclear reactions that generate the suns enormous energy output y Core energy generated by nuclear fusion y Radiation zone energy transported by electromagnetic radiation y Convection zone energy carried by convection y Photosphere electromagnetic radiation can escapethe part of the sun we see y Chromosphere cool lower atmosphere y Transition zone Rapid increase in temperature y Corona hot lowdensity upper atmosphere y Solar wind solar material escapes into space and flows outward through the solar system Luminosity y The sun radiates a great amount of energy into space
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