BIOA01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Genotype Frequency, Allele Frequency, Gene Pool

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Published on 4 Jan 2018
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
BIOA01
Fall 2017
Module 1: Evolution (Dr. Fitzpatrick)
What is Evolution?
Evolution change over time
Biological evolution change in allele frequencies & genetics in population
Penicillin
Product of
Penicillium
mould
Evolved response of bacteria
First antibiotic drug based on a naturally occurring substance
Resistant bacteria kills 30,000 40,000 Americans/year
Microevolution
Microevolution heritable variation in genetics of a population
Population individuals of species are same time & place
Changes
within
species
Natural selection & other evolutionary forces
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[Changes in microevolutions lead to a larger scale of macro-evolutionary change.]
Variation
Phenotypic variation heritable variation in appearance &/or function; plasticity; due to
genetics or environment
Plasticity the adaptability of an organism
Quantitative variation characteristics with a range of variation
o Controlled by multiple genes
o Can be measured
Qualitative variation characteristics with distinct states
Genes & Environment
Genotypes & phenotypes are not completely correlated
o Only phenotypes are inheritable
Experiments determine connection between phenotypes & genotypes
o Maintains genetic consistency & variation in environment
o Breeding experiments, selection experiments
Genetic Variation
Arises due to:
New alleles
Recombination (from crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilization) or DNA
replication
Requires a high population to undertake this
Assessing Genetic Variation
Can assess observable phenotypic variation (phenotype = genotype) such as Mendel’s pea
experiment
Can measure genetic variation direction
o Many cheap & high-throughput methods
o Many based on polymerase chain reaction
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Gel Electrophoresis
Each well of the gel is loaded with a sample from one individual subject. An electrical current is passed
through the gel. Proteins in each well migrate towards positive electrode according to their charge &
size. Gel is then stained with biochemical agent, producing visible colour in presence of Adh enzyme.
[insert photo]
Population Genetics
Made up of same species, each with different genotype
For evolution to occur, individuals within a population must differ genetically
Populations
Population group of individuals of same species that live in same region & interbreed to
produce fertile offspring
On average, individuals within a population are more closely related to each other than other
members in other populations
Different populations of the same species may be isolated from each other such that gene flow
is rare
Gene Pool
Can characterize a population’s genetic makeup
Gene pool sum of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of a population
Identify genotypes & calculate genotype frequencies
Genotype frequency number of individuals with a given genotype divided by the total
number of individuals in population; proportion of genotypes
Knowing that diploids have 2 alleles of each gene, we can calculate allele frequencies
Allele frequency relative frequency of allele at particular locus in population, expressed as a
fraction or percentage; represents commonness or rarity
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Null model to find the genetic makeup of population if it were not evolving at the locus in
order to determine if there is presence of evolution
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