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Final

BIOA01H3 Final: BIOA01 Module 2 - Metabolic Processes (Term Test Notes)

25 Pages
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Fall 2017

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick
Study Guide
Final

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BIOA01
Fall 2017
Module 2: Metabolic Processes (Dr. Brunt)
The Cell
Cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life
Nucleic Acids & Proteins
Cells need a way to store & transmit information, as well as reproduce
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA; two-stranded helix made up of 4 molecules
o Directs information to proteins
Protein key structural & functional molecules that do work in a cell
o Involved in many chemical reactions
Ribonucleic acid RNA; copy of DNA via transcription
Translation conversion of information stored in a language of nucleic acids to the language
of proteins
Central dogma basic flow of information in a cell
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2
Importance of Membranes
Plasma membrane boundary between inside & outside of cell; separates living material
from non-living
o Dynamic interactions occur between spaces of membrane
o Controls movement of materials in & out of cell
Nucleus houses cell’s DNA; has a nuclear membrane to control movement of cell material
o Located separately from cytoplasm
Cytoplasm space outside of nucleus
Eukaryotes cells with nucleus
Prokaryotes cells without nucleus
Metabolism
Metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down
molecules
Carbon: Life’s Chemical Backbone
Organic molecule carbon-containing molecules
Carbon’s Covalent Bonds
Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e-. This ability, spatial orientation
of the bonds, & e- ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules.
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3
Links & Chains
Carbon can form links with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings (from 2 carbons at the
ends or within a chain).
2 adjacent atoms can form a double bond when sharing 2 e-.
Isomer molecules with same molecular formula but different structures
Organic Molecules
Protein provides structural support
Nucleic acid encode & transmit genetic information
Carbohydrate provides energy & make up cell wall, signaling
Lipid composed cell membrane, store energy, signaling molecules
Polymer complex molecules made up of repeated simpler units connected by covalent bonds
Amino acid monomer of proteins; contains amine & carboxyl groups
Nucleotide monomer of nucleic acids; contains nitrogenous base, sugar, & phosphate group
Saccharide monomer of carbohydrates (sugar)
Fatty acids long chain of carbons attached to a carboxyl group
Protein
carbon central carbon atom of each amino acid
Side chain chemical group that is attached to the alpha carbon to determine identity of
amino acid
Peptide bond covalent linkage of carbon (from carboxyl group) of one amino acid &
nitrogen (from amine group) of another
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Description
BIOA01 Fall 2017 Module 2: Metabolic Processes (Dr. Brunt) The Cell Cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life Nucleic Acids & Proteins Cells need a way to store & transmit information, as well as reproduce Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA; two-stranded helix made up of 4 molecules o Directs information to proteins Protein key structural & functional molecules that do work in a cell o Involved in many chemical reactions Ribonucleic acid RNA; copy of DNA via transcription Translation conversion of information stored in a language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins Central dogma basic flow of information in a cell Importance of Membranes Plasma membrane boundary between inside & outside of cell; separates living material from non-living o Dynamic interactions occur between spaces of membrane o Controls movement of materials in & out of cell Nucleus houses cells DNA; has a nuclear membrane to control movement of cell material o Located separately from cytoplasm Cytoplasm space outside of nucleus Eukaryotes cells with nucleus Prokaryotes cells without nucleus Metabolism Metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down molecules Carbon: Lifes Chemical Backbone Organic molecule carbon-containing molecules Carbons Covalent Bonds Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e . This ability, spatial orientation - of the bonds, & e ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules. 2 Links & Chains Carbon can form links with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings (from 2 carbons at the ends or within a chain). 2 adjacent atoms can form a double bond when sharing 2 e . Isomer molecules with same molecular formula but different structures Organic Molecules Protein provides structural support Nucleic acid encode & transmit genetic information Carbohydrate provides energy & make up cell wall, signaling Lipid composed cell membrane, store energy, signaling molecules Polymer complex molecules made up of repeated simpler units connected by covalent bonds Amino acid monomer of proteins; contains amine & carboxyl groups Nucleotide monomer of nucleic acids; contains nitrogenous base, sugar, & phosphate group Saccharide monomer of carbohydrates (sugar) Fatty acids long chain of carbons attached to a carboxyl group Protein carbon central carbon atom of each amino acid Side chain chemical group that is attached to the alpha carbon to determine identity of amino acid Peptide bond covalent linkage of carbon (from carboxyl group) of one amino acid & nitrogen (from amine group) of another 3 Nucleic Acids Base nitrogen-containing compound o RNA has a hydroxyl group on 2ndcarbon, DNA has a hydrogen on 2nd carbon Pyrimidine bases with single-ring structure Purine bases with double-ringed structure Phosphodiester bond a bond that forms when phosphate group in one nucleotide is covalently bonded to a sugar group of another; stable & form backbone of DNA strand Double helix structure formed by 2 strands of complementary nucleotides that coil around each other Carbohydrates Composed of C, H, & O atoms in ratio 1:2:1 Complex carbohydrates long branched chains of monosaccharides o Monosaccharides are unbranched carbon chains with either an aldehyde (aldose) or ketone (ketose) Glycosidic bonds a covalent bond that attaches one monosaccharide to another Lipids Triacylglycerol lipid composed of glycerol backbone & 3 fatty acids Glycerol 3-carbon molecule with OH group attached to each one Saturated fatty acids that dont contain double bonds; maximum number of H atoms assigned to each C (i.e. animal fats) Van der Waals forces binding of temporarily polarized molecules due to opposite charges attracting 4
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