BIOA01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Phosphodiester Bond, Nucleic Acid Double Helix, Carboxylic Acid

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Published on 5 Jan 2018
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
BIOA01
Fall 2017
Module 2: Metabolic Processes (Dr. Brunt)
The Cell
Cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life
Nucleic Acids & Proteins
Cells need a way to store & transmit information, as well as reproduce
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA; two-stranded helix made up of 4 molecules
o Directs information to proteins
Protein key structural & functional molecules that do work in a cell
o Involved in many chemical reactions
Ribonucleic acid RNA; copy of DNA via transcription
Translation conversion of information stored in a language of nucleic acids to the language
of proteins
Central dogma basic flow of information in a cell
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2
Importance of Membranes
Plasma membrane boundary between inside & outside of cell; separates living material
from non-living
o Dynamic interactions occur between spaces of membrane
o Controls movement of materials in & out of cell
Nucleus houses cell’s DNA; has a nuclear membrane to control movement of cell material
o Located separately from cytoplasm
Cytoplasm space outside of nucleus
Eukaryotes cells with nucleus
Prokaryotes cells without nucleus
Metabolism
Metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down
molecules
Carbon: Life’s Chemical Backbone
Organic molecule carbon-containing molecules
Carbon’s Covalent Bonds
Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e-. This ability, spatial orientation
of the bonds, & e- ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules.
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3
Links & Chains
Carbon can form links with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings (from 2 carbons at the
ends or within a chain).
2 adjacent atoms can form a double bond when sharing 2 e-.
Isomer molecules with same molecular formula but different structures
Organic Molecules
Protein provides structural support
Nucleic acid encode & transmit genetic information
Carbohydrate provides energy & make up cell wall, signaling
Lipid composed cell membrane, store energy, signaling molecules
Polymer complex molecules made up of repeated simpler units connected by covalent bonds
Amino acid monomer of proteins; contains amine & carboxyl groups
Nucleotide monomer of nucleic acids; contains nitrogenous base, sugar, & phosphate group
Saccharide monomer of carbohydrates (sugar)
Fatty acids long chain of carbons attached to a carboxyl group
Protein
carbon central carbon atom of each amino acid
Side chain chemical group that is attached to the alpha carbon to determine identity of
amino acid
Peptide bond covalent linkage of carbon (from carboxyl group) of one amino acid &
nitrogen (from amine group) of another
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Document Summary

The cell: cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life. Metabolism: metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down molecules. Carbon: life"s chemical backbone: organic molecule carbon-containing molecules. Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e-. This ability, spatial orientation of the bonds, & e- ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules. Carbon can form links with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings (from 2 carbons at the ends or within a chain). 2 adjacent atoms can form a double bond when sharing 2 e-: isomer molecules with same molecular formula but different structures. Cell wall: turgor pressure force exerted by eater pressing against an object; hydrostatic pressure, maintains structure (plants) Key cellular functions: replication of dna, synthesis of dna (transcription, assembly of ribosomes in nucleus; site of protein synthesis.

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