BIOA01H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 80 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIOA01
Fall 2017
Module 2: Metabolic Processes (Dr. Brunt)
The Cell
Cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life
Nucleic Acids & Proteins
Cells need a way to store & transmit information, as well as reproduce
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA; two-stranded helix made up of 4 molecules
o Directs information to proteins
Protein key structural & functional molecules that do work in a cell
o Involved in many chemical reactions
Ribonucleic acid RNA; copy of DNA via transcription
Translation conversion of information stored in a language of nucleic acids to the language
of proteins
Central dogma basic flow of information in a cell
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2
Importance of Membranes
Plasma membrane boundary between inside & outside of cell; separates living material
from non-living
o Dynamic interactions occur between spaces of membrane
o Controls movement of materials in & out of cell
Nucleus houses cell’s DNA; has a nuclear membrane to control movement of cell material
o Located separately from cytoplasm
Cytoplasm space outside of nucleus
Eukaryotes cells with nucleus
Prokaryotes cells without nucleus
Metabolism
Metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down
molecules
Carbon: Life’s Chemical Backbone
Organic molecule carbon-containing molecules
Carbon’s Covalent Bonds
Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e-. This ability, spatial orientation
of the bonds, & e- ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules.
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Document Summary

The cell: cell simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life. Metabolism: metabolism chemical reactions by which cells convert energy in order to break down molecules. Carbon: life"s chemical backbone: organic molecule carbon-containing molecules. Carbon has the ability to form 4 covalent bonds, due to its 4 unpaired e-. This ability, spatial orientation of the bonds, & e- ability to rotate freely contributes to structural diversity of organic molecules. Carbon can form links with other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings (from 2 carbons at the ends or within a chain). 2 adjacent atoms can form a double bond when sharing 2 e-: isomer molecules with same molecular formula but different structures. Cell wall: turgor pressure force exerted by eater pressing against an object; hydrostatic pressure, maintains structure (plants) Key cellular functions: replication of dna, synthesis of dna (transcription, assembly of ribosomes in nucleus; site of protein synthesis.

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