Chapter 52 notes (has all information that was on 2011 exam)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Chapter 52: Ecology and The Distribution of Life 52.1: What is Ecology Ecology: scientific study of the rich and varied interactions between organisms and their environments: organism influence and are influenced by the environment Environment: encompasses both abiotic and biotic factors Communities: systems embracing all the organisms in an area Ecosystems: systems embracing all the organisms in an area of a physical environment Biosphere: all regions of the planet where organisms live 52.2: How are climates distributed on earth: Climate: average atmospheric conditions over a long time (varies mainly due to solar energy) Higher altitude=less solar energy received than at the equator Differences in air temperature among different regions on earth are determined by solar energy input (impacted by angle that hits earth and amount of atmosphere that the energy travels through) As a parcel of air rises, it expands and its pressure and temperature drop=release moisture As a parcel of air descends, it compresses and its pressure and temp increase=take up moisture 1. Tropics: air heated by sun and risesexpands releases moisture as it cools 2. At 30C NS, wind patterns where the air tends to fall and picks up moisture(wincreasing pressure)dry deserts have dry air because winds take up all the moisture 3. Winds move to the equator and causes the temperature to rise decrease in temperaturemoisture releasesprecipitation: Intertropical Convergence Zone: where there are heavy rains
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