BGYB10&B11 Midterm 1 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BGY10 J Midterm 1 Lecture #1: Introduction J Chapter 1 - cells = unit of life - about 10-100 million different kinds of organisms J each have many different types of cells o adult human body has about 60 trillion cells and 200 different kinds of cells - all cells are molecules that carry out chemical activity - 1665: Z},}}l[Z]Z]} ooZ}}-like compartments = cork cells from oak bark - 1665-9L}LL>LZ}l]Z]Z]L2o ooZZanimalcules[]L}L - Cell Theory: o all organisms composed of one or more cells o cells = structural unit of life for all organisms o cells come from pre-existing cells - cells = structural compartments, separate external environment from internal, macromolecules perform unique functions in cells o cells are highly complex and organized o cells possess genetic program and means to use it (e.g. transcription, translation ZK Z]L[J genes to proteins) o cells are capable of reproducing more of themselves (e.g. mitosis, meiosis) o cells acquire and utilize energy to developmaintain complexity (e.g. photosynthesis, cellular respiration J sun to carbs to ATP) o cells carry out a variety of chemical rxns (e.g. enzymes J useproduce ATP) o cells engage in many mechanical activities (e.g. intracellular transport, assemblydismantling cell components, cell movement) o cells respond to stimuli (e.g. w surface receptions J proteins) o cells can self-regulate (e.g. DNA repair, immune cells) o cells evolve (beneficial genetic mutation, cell changes kept, retained in future) ** review cell structure J pictures in textbook - prokaryotes lack membrane-enclosed organelles (DNA but no nucleus), over 3 billion years old, genetic material loosely organized in nucleoid regions in cytoplasm, have plasma membrane and ribosomes, cell wall gives support o Z ooZZ]Ko[7K}o] oo]ZJ includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaebacteria o cyanobacteria = blue-green algae: aerobic photosynthetic prokaryotes, responsible for oxygen-based life on earth, most morphologically diverse group of bacteria - eukaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles, over1.5 billion years old (first were unicellular), have internal cytoskeleton for support o organelles: nucleus, ER, GA, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles, lysosomes) o structurally diverse J metabolicaloZZ]Ko[ o oldest eukaryotes in Kingdom Protista, rest are in Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia ** review table 1.1 in textbook (1, 7, 8 = structural features; 4, 5, 6 = metabolic pathways) and table 1.1 part 2 in textbook - rRNA tree indicates 3 major groups of organisms: o 1 of eukaryotes J Eukarya o 2 of prokaryotes J Bacteria and Archaea - unicellular organisms must do everything needed to survive (e.g. most protists) - multicellular organisms = some protists, plants, fungi, animals o ]]Lo2Z]ZlE}Z[ o KL ooZl ooZ}2L]ZKZ}L ]}LZZZ}o[}2L]ZKZ o believed to have descended from colonial eukaryotes (less that 1 billion years ago) o Z]]Zdifferentiation[ - differentiation = specialization J process where relatively unspecialized cell becomes high Z ]o]LZZZ ooZ ]] [2LZ o fertilized human egg differentiated into 100s of different cell types Lecture #2: Chemistry for Cell Biology (pt. 1) J Chapter 2 - 6 elements compose 98% of all living organisms J H, C,S, N, P, O o }Z oKLZ[ }K}ZK]L]L2}}2L]ZKZ - covalent bonds = polar, non-polar - non- }oL}LZ)]}L] }LZ7Z}2L}LZ7Z}Z}] ]L ]}LZ7LJo[Z forces + - - for a neutral atom, the # p = # of e - chemical hierarchy of structure: sub-atomic particles J atoms J molecules - molecules = 2+ atoms linked by chemical bonds resulting from chemical rxns - atoms w incomplete valence shells interact w other atoms in order to complete shell - o can share valence e = c-valent bond o can transfer valence e = ionic bond o can influence atomsmolecules by proximity (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction, LJo[Z} Z - type of bond distinguished by strength of bond J determined by amount of energy required to break bond - covalent bond = s}L2}L7]K}L]L}K]L2K}o oZ7}KZ]Z]LK}o oZ[ - - o when 2 atoms share 1+ e to complete outer e shell = stable o involves full charges o givesmolecules 3-D structure o types of -ovalent bonds based on: number and electronegativity = tendency of atom to attract e when it occurs as part of a molecule (EN increased up and right on periodic table) - non-polar covalent molecule = equal sharing of e - o molecules wout EN atoms and polar bonds o molecules that have C and H are non-polar (e.g. hydrocarbons) - polar covalent molecules = unequal sharing of e J asymmetric distribution - o if nucleus more positively charged on one atoms, will attract e more o atoms with becomes relatively EN compared to other atom J presence of partial charges o biologically important polar molecules have 1+ EN atoms (usually O, N, A, andor P) J e.g. water - - - non-covalent bonds = weak bonds J when 2 atoms transfer 1+ e to complete outer e shell = stable J or when atoms influence each other thru proximity wout e charge J hydrophobic o may involve fullpartialno charges o occurs between molecules o govern interactions between molecules or different parts of large biological molecules J weaker linkages o Z9]}L] }LZ7Z}2L}LZ7Z}Z}] ]L ]}LZ7LJo[Z} Z
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