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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Lecture 6 Study Notes Causes of heart failure: Heart attack (myocardial infarction): blockage of the coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood, resulting in the death of cardiac myocytes o Reduced blood flow, ischemia, results, causing oxygen starvation High BP; Stenosis of aorta o Results in increased after-load o Stenosis of the aorta refers to the aortic valve not opening properly, resulting in high blood pressure and the heart having to work harder to pump blood out (resulting in cardiac muscle hypertrophy) Reduction in ventricular contractility o overcompliance of heart (i.e. ability to expand optimally) results in hampered CO Obstruction of AV valves o Decreased EDV Third Degree Heart Block o Complete lack of conduction through AV node o P waves lacking QRS complexes o Above Bundle of His, heart is functioning well o But below that, the heart is unstable Left Heart FailureCongestive Heart Failure o The left ventricle fails or inadequately pumps blood into systematic circulation o Results in build-up in pulmonary circulation Pressure builds up Blood backs up
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