CITB01: All Lectures and Exam Review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

January 9 , 2013 Lecture 1: What is Planning? Planning is the deliberate social or organizational activity of developing an optimal strategy for future action to achieve a desired set of goals, for solving novel problems in complex contexts, and attended by the power and intention to commit resources and to act as necessary to implement the chosen strategy. (Ernest Alexander) - Always about present and future What is Urban Planning? In broadest terms, urban and regional planning is the process by which communities attempt to control and/or design change and development in their physical environments. (Canadian Encyclopedia) Planning is concerned with the interrelationship among... - People, physical objects, and ecological processes - Problems, subject matter, and specializations - Jurisdictions (federal, provincial and municipal) - Domains (social, economic, political, physical) Three Key Questions in Planning 1. What action is necessary? 2. Who should act? 3. How should we proceed? Do we all agree on what the desired outcome is and how to achieve it? Three Planning Approaches 1. Developer’s Approach 2. Community Interest Approach 3. Municipal Planner’s Approach Summary - Defining (urban) planning - Different planning approaches - The politics of choice - The historical specificity of planning ideas January 16 , 2013 Lecture 2 – Canadian Urban Development: Past and Present Two aspects of urban development 1 Urban System – all cities within one urban system 2 Intra-Urban Structure – structure of environment within cities Mercantile Period (1600-1800) - Canada as part of a colonial trading system o Resource extraction in Canada (trading)  Fur (interest to British, France, Europeans) - Population and settlements remained small - small scale - Staples Theory (Harold Innis)– explain Canadian development by looking at staples o Fur is relatively small, so not many people are needed, thus not much settlement - Emergence of small-scale subsistence farming - Quebec City and Montreal were the largest cities in Canada - Developed, colonized with natural resources Agricultural Expansion (1800-1850) - Lumber had become the dominant export o Decline in fur exports - Significant population growth - Forestry industry cleared land for agricultural development o Cut down trees → clearing of land → land to build homes - Larger ships were needed to carry lumber exports → increase of immigrants - The economic base of towns diversed - Westward expansion - Toronto grew significantly – golden horseshoe o Became commercial centre - Early industrial development - Transportation: walking (mostly) and horse carriages - The urban form remained compact o Because mode of transportation was walking - Early industrial development o Halifax ship building - Starvation in Ireland o Potatoes - Enclosure Movement – Scotland - 1851 – population of 2.5 million o USA population was 10x larger, and keeps at a constant 10x Canada’s Industrialization (1850-1845) - Westward (agricultural) expansion - Cities grew, but still compact (walking was still mostly used, and carriages were still a luxury) - Later industrialization than other places like the UK, Europe, and USA o In some ways, an advantage - Wanted to bring provinces together - American expansion → pushing Canada’s western connection - Confederation (1867) - First National Policy (1879) - Industrial development of the “heartland” - Emergence of a “heartland-hinterland” split - Diversification of Canada’s urban form - Transcontinental Railway o Merging East and West o Trading linkage - Lots of regional pulls - Natural Resources, agricultural products - West to East - Continental Europe for recruitment o German, Polish, Ukrainian, Swiss, etc. o European Immigration only - Import tariffs - Import Substitution Industrialization - Mass public transportation The Fordist Keynesian Era (1945 - 1975) - Mass production/mass consumption - The government encouraged homeownership and the consumption of consumer goods - Beginning of large-scale suburbanization - Car-oriented urban development - Middle-class suburbanization contributed to a “filtering down” of the inner city housing stock - Henry Ford o Made cars more productive o Assembly line - People could purchase the goods they (themselves) produced - Keynesian – stimulate aggregate demand in economy o People spending money o Promote full employment - Invest in infrastructure – jobs - 1930s – allowed people to build - Mass consumer goods – automobiles - Transition – late 40s +50s → large scale suburbanization - Emergence of regional shopping malls Current Developments - Canada has become an “urban nation” - Urbanization continues, albeit with a different geography - Metropolitan concentration/dominance: urban growth is concentrated in five regions - Pronounced contrast between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of the country - Canada urbanization over 85% (one of the largest) - Society close to nature (we think) - Metropolitan dominance What are five core metropolitan regions of Canada? - Greater Golden Horseshoe - Greater Montreal - Victoria/Vancouver and Lower Mainland - Central Alberta Corridor - Ottawa – Gatineau The Underlying Factors - Socio-demographic trends (e.g. immigration) - Deindustrialization and economic restructuring - Trade liberalization and continental integration - The changing role of the state Implications for Policy and Planning - Uneven economic and urban growth - New fault lines: “winners” and “losers” o Attraction - What are the policy and planning challenges of Canada’s growing city-regions? - What are the policy and planning challenges of Canada’s stagnant or declining cities? rd January 23 , 2013 Lecture 3: The History of Planning in Canada Current Trends - Metropolitan dominance: urban growth is concentrated in five urban regions; - Pronounced contrast between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of the country - Growth is primarily concentrated in five urban core regions What are the underlying factors that contribute to the uneven development of Canada’s urban system at the beginning of the 21 century? Underlying factors (from lecture 2) - Immigrants are attracted to certain places - MTV Syndrome o Most immigrants are settling in large cities M – Montreal T – Toronto V – Vancouver - Service Sector The History of Planning th - 19 century Planning Concerns o Concern over city appearance o Concern over living conditions o Concern over the environment o Concern over city efficiency o No planning apparatus in play o Cities grew in an uncontrolled fashion o Working class residence – crowded, no sanitation o Working class needed residential needs o No management – sewers o “Reform Period”  All lead to reform movement  Emergence of urban planning - The City Beautiful Movement o Chicago World Fair 1893 o Increased awareness about the importance of urban design o The design principles developed at the time governed the design of public buildings across the United States and also influenced developments in Canada o End of 19 century (1891, 1893) o How can we design it? o Urban design – early planners’ thought, artistic o Living conditions (New York Tenements) o “Such is the Old Town of Manchester... and the frightful condition of this Hell upon Earth. Everything here arouses horror and indignation.” (Friedrich Engels, 1844) - Housing Reform o Garden City (Ebenezer Howard)  Very hard to implement o Dispersal of the population and industry - movement o Creation of community living environments - Get people out of those bad living environments o Creation of greenbelts - Making Greenland - Parks and Playgrounds Movement o Based on the desire to create “breathing spaces” for recreational purposes o Local branches of the Council of Women pushed for parks and playgrounds in working-class districts o Parc Mont Royal in Montreal and Stanley Park in Vancouver o Based on land transfers from the British central government to municipalities o Cemetery – larger in outskirts of city - The City Efficient/Scientific o Problems of the 19 century industrial city: Fire, disease and lack of transportation o Rapid urban growth demanded city-wide infrastructure systems o Private provision of essential services failed o The rise of civil engineering as a profession o Growth was inefficient o City needed infrastructure th - The “Urban Question” in Canada at the beginning of the 20 Century o Rapid urban growth with heavy activity at the urban periphery o Many municipalities faced bankruptcy trying to establish infrastructure o Increasing awareness of inefficient planning and management - Institutional Development of Planning o Commission of Conservation (1909 - 1921)  How do grow cities? Manage growth? o Thomas Adams became the planning consultant of the Commission in 1914 o Creation of Town Planning Institute (1919) o Development of planning legislation in most provinces o Fear of socialism limited large-scale planning o Russian Revolution – Emergence of Soviet - Great Depression (1929 – 1939) o Planning slowed down or came to a halt o The Town Planning Institute ceased operations in 1932 o Unemployment relief programs o Prairie Farmers Rehabilitation Administration (1935) o The League for Social Reconstruction pushed for social programs and welfare o ‘How can we get out of this?’ o Increase acceptation of state intervention - WWII and Reconstruction (1939 - 1955) o The war effort stimulated the economy o Machinery plants located in suburban areas o Advisory Committee on Postwar Reconstruction pushed for a national program of reconstruction and social improvements o Ontario created the Department of Planning and Development in 1944 o Canadian Institute of Planners (1952) o University established programs in planning o Solved great depression  Women were put to work, while men were off to war  Unemployment decreased - The Post-War Boom (1955 - 1975) o Population growth (Baby Boomers) o Suburbanization of Canadian cities  Buy houses, cars o Freeway construction became a key planning objective to facilitate suburban growth o Decentralization of retail through the emergence of regional retail malls o Planning as institutional practice - The Historical Continuity of Modern Planning ideas o New Urbanism o Healthy Communities o Sustainable Development o Smart Growth o Infrastructure Planning January 30 , 2013 Lecture 4 – Cities and Values in Planning Can planning be objective and value free? - Justifying with values and ethics (no) - Cities made for design only (a bit) If you were a planner, what values and ethical principles would guide your practice? - Equality - political value – keep in mind future, religious values - Economic value – right environment for investment, keep Toronto attractive (competitive) - Social values – privatism with fences - Aesthetic values Values in planning - Values reflect core beliefs and understandings about the world - Different actors have different values - Disagreement can arise over different values - Consensus-building is easiest when people share values - City-building is a political and messy affair! - Negotiate different values in planning - Respond to social movements - Efficiency Planners work for the public good. Planning includes a concern for health, aesthetics, equity and efficiency. As well, planning respects the land as a community resource. It contributes to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and promotes healthy communities and improvements to quality of life. (Canadian Institute of Planners) Is there such a thing as the public good? And who gets to define what that is? Common types of values that shape planning and City-Building - Scientific values - Aesthetic values - Political values - Economic values - Social and cultural values - Environmental values Ethics can provide the moral principles to guide planning decisions and help decide what is right and wrong. Planning ethics as a form of applied ethics allows us to examine a particular planning issue as a matter of moral judgement Remember Africville (1991) - Community was not consulted and land was bulldozed - Assumption that community would be okay with expertise February 6 , 2013 Lecture 5: The Planning Process Exclusionary Zoning/Nimby Politics Should the City of Toronto harmonize its zoning bylaws to allow for the operation of rooming houses across the entire city? The Traditional Model of the Planning Process - Patrick Geddes o Survey o Analysis o Plan - Steps added to the traditional model o Explicit development of planning goals o Formulation of planning alternatives o Evaluation of different planning options o Feedback loops and reviews o Community consultation and participation  Survey situation  Develop goals  Analyze findings  Formulate alternatives  Evaluate options  Select preferred choices Goals Objectives Policies What is the name of the document that outlines the planning goals, objectives, and policies of a municipality? The Official Plan The Official Plan is a city’s policy vision to manage and direct physical change. Development applications are evaluated against the policies and criteria of the Plan. All bylaws must reflect the intent of the Plan. (City of Toronto) Constraints for Creative Planning - The fiscal imperative - The market imperative - The electoral imperative Provide justification for planning Public Participation Public involvement is the process for integrating the public into the decision-making procedures of a municipality or corporation; it can range from consultation to participation. The key difference is the degree of decision-making power given to the public. How much power does the public have? - Public involvement – integrating the public into decision making - Stronger neighbourhoods - middle-income/class The Nature of Effective Consultation - Are the participants satisfied with their level of participation involvement? - Is the process transparent and accessible? - What is the purpose of the process? - Who benefits, who plays, who controls? Changing Modes of Participation - Pre-1960s: Simple announcements to the public - Late 1960s-1970s: Legislative changes led to public meetings, hearings, appeals procedure, and experiments in neighbourhood planning - 1980s: Stakeholder engagement and conflict management - 1990s onward: Consensus building, greater emphasis on collaboration, visioning exercises Degrees of Public Involvement (Marshall and Roberts) - Persuasion (or manipulation) - Education - Information sharing and feedback - Consultation - Joint planning and shared-decision making - Delegated authority - Self-Determination Planning Act (ONT) - All cities need plan - Periodically review plan and make changes - 37 – community benefits February 13 , 2013 Lecture 6: The Tools of Planning – Jurisdictions, Policies, Bylaws Planning Law and Regulations: The Constitutional Context - Constitution Act (formerly the British North American Act) of 1867 - Distribution of legislative powers in sections 91 and 92 (section 92(8) relevant for municipalities) - Canadian municipalities as “creatures of the provinces.” Planning Terminology and Scales of Planning - Provincial planning legislation: Planning Act - Plan/zoning appeal body: Ontario Municipal Board - Regional plan: Upper Tier Plan – done by province – they lead way - Municipal land use plan: Official Plan - Special area or district plan: Secondary Plan - Street & block layout: Tertiary Plan - Land subdivision: Plan of Subdivision - Zoning: Zoning By-Law – regulating what you can do where - Site plan review: Site Plan Control and Development Agreement The Scope of Provincial Planning Legislation (Planning Acts) - The creation of planning units - The establishment of organizational structures for planning - The content, preparation, and adoption of statutory plans - The format for enacting zoning, building and housing bylaws - The system for subdividing land The Official Plan - A city’s policy vision to manage and direct physical change - Comprehensive and long-range - A blueprint document with a general focus - Deals with the main issues and major proposals - Development applications are evaluated against the policies and criteria of the plan - All by-laws must reflect the “intent of the plan” Special Area or District Plan - Adapts and implements the objectives, policies, land use designations of the City’s Official Plan to fit with local contexts - Establishes local development policies uniquely to an area to guide growth and change in that area - Promotes a desired type and form of physical development in a specific area - Guides public and private investment (City of Toronto) - More specific plans for specific areas/special areas - Universities are developers Land Development Plan - Subdivision plans involve dividing a large parcel of usually vacant land into building lots - Site plans involve development of a single parcel of land that may be vacant or will be made vacant - These types of plans are usually put forward by private individual or developers - The planner’s responsibility is to assess whether the development meets the “intent of the Plan” Zoning and Zoning Bylaws - Main planning tool to regulate land use - Land-use districts and designations - Height control - Placement of building on parcel (setbacks or front, side and rear yards) – some space must be left - Lot coverage (building footprint) - Density (floor-area ratio) - Zoning bylaws have three basic components: maps, words, and numbers - ‘What can happen where and to what extent?’ - (1) Land-Use o Land uses in a typical community: residences, industry, commerce and business, institutions, open space, and streets o What do you think is the distribution of land-uses in a large Canadian city? - (2) Height, Bulk and Placement o Regulations - (3) Density and Floor Area Ratio Other Concerns of Zoning - Parking and loading - Signs - Accessory building - Home occupations - Aesthetics - Cultural diversity - Recent trend towards ‘mixed use’ development Should the city have the right to regulate how many cars you can park in your driveway? Ontario Municipal Board (OMB) - An independent administrative board that operates as an adjudicative panel dealing with property and planning matters - The OMB hears appeals to Council decisions on development applications - Applicants may also appeal the City’s failure to meet legislated time frames - What are potential shortcomings of the appeals process? Some study questions: - What is the historical development of cities in Canada since European colonization? - What social and economic factors influenced urban development in Canada over time? - What are the defining characteristics of the Canadian urban system today? - What are the dominant planning challenges of Canadian cities today? - What city problems/concerns contributed to the emergence of modern planning ideas? - How did planning as a professional practice develop in Canada? - How do values shape planning? - What is the importance of ethics in planning? What are the steps in the planning process? - How can the public participate in the planning process? Lecture 7: Exam March 6 , 2013 Lecture 8: Kelly Snow Presentation 1. Lights Out Toronto 2. Bird-Friendly Development Guidelines 3. Birds of Toronto 4. Toronto Green Standard - Migratory birds that depend on urban areas to carry out their requisite life processes - Protected and has a status of “threatened” under the federal SARA and the Ontario ESA (Species at Risk Public Registry, n.d.). It is also protected under the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, which makes it an offence to disturb, kill or collect adults, juveniles and eggs - Populations are in critical decline, mainly due to human impacts - Used to nest in hallow trees or tree cavities but as manmade structures such as chimneys became more abundant than the hollow trees and Chimney Swifts began to utilize these structures for their habitat within the Toronto area - Mostly found in urban areas where they nest and roost seasonally in chimneys or other manmade structures, tending to be near bodies of water Chimney Swifts - They are quite small, measuring approximately 12-14 centimetres long, and have a sooty brown, cigar shaped body, long slender wings and a paler throat - The bird can be distinguished by its distinct acrobatic and erratic flight pattern while it flies through the air, foraging on its prey (flying insects) - In order for the Chimney Swifts to fulfill their nesting and roosting habitat requirements, they have to have access to chimneys that are large enough in diameter (>28.5cm), which corresponds to the wingspan of the Swift, and have a rough inner surface for the swifts to cling to with their claw-like feet and wing structure - Chimney Swifts winter in the Amazon Basin of Peru and their winter habitat preferences are still not very well known - They arrive in southern Ontario at the end of April and most stay into August - Although they can withstand a few early cold snaps, the swifts will usually migrate south on the first major cold- front that comes in the fall Swift Nesting & Roosting Behaviour - Swifts look for a dark, sheltered spot with vertical surfaces that they can grip onto and attach their nests - Usually single-brooded, and there is always only one active nest in the chimney, regardless of the chimney’s size - Nest is built of twigs broken from the tops of tree branches, glued together with saliva and attached to the vertical surface of the chimney - Normally three to five eggs in a nest and they are incubated by alternating adults for about eighteen days - Fledge from the chimney at about 30 days after hatching - In the late summer, at the end of the breeding season, the swifts’ communal instincts peak prior to the fall migration and they congregate and flock in hundreds and sometimes thousands at suitable roost sites in larger chimneys Chimney Swifts & City Planning - Hundreds of suitable chimneys in the former City of Toronto, and Ontario SwiftWatch (initiative of Bird Studies Canada) is working to identify and monitor many of these sites - One of the most prominent threats to the Chimney Swift population is the demolition of old buildings, which tend to have adequate and accessible traditional chimneys. These are most often found in schools, industrial areas, libraries and some large residences - Homeowners have started renovating old traditional chimneys to comply with new building codes and safety concerns by installing metal liners, fire screens, caps and covers, all of which decrease the number of suitable nesting sites for the species - The City is often faced with applications to demolish buildings, including chimneys, through the development application process - In these cases, where preservation or restoration of swift chimneys is not possible, compensation for the lost chimney habitat may be a possible option through the construction of artificial replacement habitat (towers) Are Towers the Answer? - Most of the attempts to build replacement habitat in Canada are based on Driftwood Wildlife Association design - The basic design involves a wooden, insulated and double-walled tower, a minimum of 8 to 12 ft in height - The inside walls of the tower must be rough enough for the swifts to cling easily - Between the inside wall siding and the exterior walls, the space should be filled with insulation, as well as a layer of plastic that will help retain heat and keep out moisture - Metal sheeting around the exterior of the tower will also make it harder for predators to reach the opening of the tower - It is important to remember that only one breeding pair will nest in the tower during the spring, but larger towers are more attractive for use by swifts as communal roosts during the fall - The easiest way to stabilize the tall tower is to secure it to the side of an existing structure, but most of the towers that have been installed in Canada are free standing on the roof of buildings, or in small clearings - In Texas, a chimney was set up and fitted with an interpretation sign; this design projects the chimney against excessive heat and raises awareness about Chimney Swifts and their habitat. This “Kiosk” design works well in parks and public spaces - In the southern United States, artificial replacement habitat in the form of nest towers has been successful in providing additional nest sites for Swifts - The Driftwood Wildlife Association in Austin, Texas has developed the most widely used design for nesting towers and their design was used and adapted by most of the organizations - But unfortunately, all the towers that have been built in Canada by experts using the same design, even with adaptations for our northern climate, have failed to attract nesting swifts - So now there are efforts underway in Ontario, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Quebec to develop a design for artificial replacement habitat that is suitable for the Canadian climate and local conditions Challenges - Internal Temperature o Wind can quickly shift internal temperature o Small fluctuations in internal temperature o Unused chimneys, connected to building basements - Conspecific Cues o Individuals tend to settle near their own species o May not use towers with no conspecific cues o Decoys and call playback was used o Results show that these cues can increase presence of swifts - Wind is apparently a major influence on the internal temperature of towers because it can shift the temperature quickly inside the tower - -The temperatures of occupied chimneys and unoccupied artificial towers have been monitored and compared by numerous studies to conclude that the inside temperature of chimneys occupied by swifts fluctuated very little in relation to outdoor temperature - -most frequently occupi
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