These are some of the oldest fossils on earth: geology the scientific study of planet earth, terrestrial planets planets that are small, dense, and rocky: mercury, geomatician a geoscientist who collects, organizes, analyzes and creates. Venus, earth, and mars. images from spatial and geographic data available in digital form: geoscientist a professional who deals with environmental problems from the finding and managing of drinking water to managing radioactive waste. Chapter 2: hypothesis a tentative theory. Igneous rock a rock formed or apparently formed from solidification of magma. In normal polarity, the north magnetic pole, where magnetic lines of force enter the earth, lies near the geographic. South pole to the north pole and compass needles point to the south. an earthquake: rift valley a tensional valley bounded by normal faults. Rift valleys are found at diverging plate boundaries on continents and along the crest of.