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[EESA10H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 84 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Silvija Stefanovic
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
EESA10H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1 - Introduction to Human
Health and Environment
Environment: everything that affects a living organism
Air, water, soil, biota, man-made environments
Gene-environment interaction
Genetic makeup increases
Exposure to an environmental risk
Susceptibility to an environmental risk factor
Genetic makeup and environmental factor are independent risk factors
Independent but at one point they will interact and overlap
Environmental Health: comprises those aspects of human health, disease, and injuries that are
determined or influenced by factors in the environment
This includes the study of direct and indirect pathological effects of
Chemical - chemicals in the air, water, soil, food
Biological - bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals (bees, poisonous
snakes)
Physical (man-made) - housing, urban development, land use, transportation
These are not environmental hazards
Natural disasters: radiation, fires, tornados, hurricane, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes
Social or behavioural hazards: poor diet, smoking, drugs, drinking, poverty
These are not environmental hazards but the chemicals in the tabacco is
Genetic traits: health risks a/w chromosomal defects (i.e. Down syndome)
This is d/t mutational defects, there needs to be a strong link b/w mutations and
environmental factors for us to consider it a environmental health hazard
The main focuses of environmental health are
Chemical, physical, biological hazards and their interactions with genetic traits,
social/behavioural stressors
In our ecosystem, nothing ever "goes away"
For example, if we take metal from the ground to make something, when we
are done with it, it never goes back into the ground
Therefore, our stuff and its by-products are transported and transformed, but
never disappear
Environmental crisis: human alteration of earth
Atmosphere: since the industrial revolution, we have increased our CO2 by 30%
Geosphere: 1/3 - 1/2 of the earth's surface has been transformed by man
Biosphere: man has cut through forests to make paths, affecting the ecosystems
Industrialization: air pollution
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Overpopulation and overconsumption: as # of people increase, the quality of the
environment is also affected
Decline of health in other organisms
This has been the clearest indicator of the declining quality of our environment
It is not a single factor but it contributes to it
i.e. The frog population
Environmental health
25% of diseases such as respiratory infections are preventable
Risk factor groups: low socioeconomic status, African Americans and Hispanics,
developing countries
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