ENGC44H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Keep America Beautiful, Chinook Salmon, Charlie Brooker

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HUMA01H3 F EXAM STUDY NOTES
THE UNIVERSTY, KNOWLEDGE, AND EPISTEMOLOGY
-Aquabounty Technology combined portion of gene to protect ocean fish from freezing and
transplanted it into growth gene of Chinook Salmon , and transferred it to North American
Salmon eggs to produce fast growing salmon intended for consumption
What is the University: repository of information & place where knowledge gets made
-in a dynamic relation, can’t have one without the other, can’t have teaching without research
What is knowledge? Not information, but info processed through thinking human brain
OED-expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; theoretical or
practical understanding of a subject
PLATO- JTB
Knowledge is produced by humans, made in two broad ways (Empirical vs. Speculative
Analytic/Critical
Epistemology branch of philosophy concerned with nature and scope of knowledge
Human Knowledge divided into: Empirical Sciences & Humanities
Empirical into: Natural Sciences (bio, chem., physics) Social Sciences (anthro, econ, socio)
Humanities include Philosophy, Lit, Arts
Empirical vs. Speculative ways of thinking
Etymology: the study of word origins
Empirical: from empirikos, meaning experience, can be divided to en and peira, in and trial,
experience in trial
Speculative: from spekulatus, to look at; Theoretical
What we get from Humanities: critical thinking, greater understanding of world, training of
imagination
Try to provide systematic clear account of what is deemed important in the world
Awareness Test (Moonwalking Bear)
Optical Illusion (Chaplin Mask)
Perception Test (line length)
REPRESENTATION, IDEOLOGY, HEGEMONY
McGurk Effect (Ba Fa, image influence how we hear the sound)
History is empirical and ideological (WWF ad, 911, Tsunami, Conserve planet)
Scholars in humanities study representation and issues of representations
Representation: Social process of making meaning by making signs stand for something
Signs are Text, Image, and Sound
-To Represent means to stand in for something (GaGa rally against don’t ask don’t tell policy)
-Representations always partial (Charlie Brooker How to Report the News)
-Always issue of power and control in representations, ALWAYS ask who is responsible for
representation and what is the agenda
To what extent are representations of groups typical of how groups are in society, in what way
are all representations stereotypes (Google muslim terrorist)
Representations are active in process of creating and analyzing them, they convey ideas, they are
Ideological
Ideological body of doctrine, myth, belief, that guides individual, social movement, institution,
class or large group
a body of ideas that reflects the beliefs and interests of a nation, political system, etc and
underlies political action
Ideology: sets of ideas which give some account of social world, usually partial and selective,
relationship of these ideas or values to the ways in which power is distributed socially
the way that such values are usually posed as natural, obvious and common sense rather than
socially produced
Do Representations reflect reality or create the reality we perceive
Hegemony: leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a
confederation
Crying Indian commercial by Keep America Beautiful- only to place responsibility on
consumers not manufactuers for litter
SIGNS, SEMIOTICS, DISCOURSE
MadV OneWorld video, Guy Fawkes as a symbol, movie, mask, comic, Anonymous
Writing is Technology(Ong), Literacy is Hegemonic; imperious, domineering, arrogant,
overbearing
Interiorized writing to the point we cannot separate it from ourselves or recognize its influence,
without writing literate mind would not and could not think as it does even when composing oral
speech
Sound and Orality: sound is fleeting, oral culture rely on formulaic constructions easy to
remember, thinking kept close to human life world, personalizes knowledge, needs to be
continually repeated
Text and Literacy: intrusion into life world, foreign, inhuman(establishes outside of the mind),
unresponsive(words can’t talk back, always the same) Falsifies, destroys memory
Ong compares Plato Critique of writing to be same as view of computers or any new technology
Calculator, Cell, Google, GPS, Social Network, Email
Ironies: Writing responsible for Plato’s critique in existence, text though dead revived by
limitless number of living reader, and since interpretation open, countless convos
Writing is technology, is not mere exterior aid, interior transform of consciousness
Properly interiorized does not degrade, but enhances human life
Writing promotes objectivity(knowledge distinct from the knower), separates past from present,
increases vocab and number of things to be said, enforces need for precision
Create meaning of world through representations
Semiotics: study of signs, understand culture as if a language Key founders: Charles Sanders
Peirce, Ferdinand de Saussure
Signs are ideological, encode naturalized norms, convey authority [boy/girl washroom sign]
Meaning of sign dependant on social historical and cultural context
Signifier = the sign Signified = the meaning
Connection between the two is arbitrary, everything depends on relations and where it is found
Also depends on the viewer, the way we view things reflects who we are
Associative Meaning: Meaning is made through absence and through difference
Guitar=stringed instrument like violin, viola, sitar, but its guitar because its not violin etc.
Man defined through its opposite, woman
(punctuate “a woman without her man is nothing”)
Discourse: communication of thoughts by words

Document Summary

Aquabounty technology combined portion of gene to protect ocean fish from freezing and transplanted it into growth gene of chinook salmon , and transferred it to north american. Salmon eggs to produce fast growing salmon intended for consumption. What is the university: repository of information & place where knowledge gets made. In a dynamic relation, can"t have one without the other, can"t have teaching without research. Not information, but info processed through thinking human brain. Oed-expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. Knowledge is produced by humans, made in two broad ways (empirical vs. Epistemology branch of philosophy concerned with nature and scope of knowledge. Human knowledge divided into: empirical sciences & humanities. Empirical into: natural sciences (bio, chem. , physics) social sciences (anthro, econ, socio) Empirical: from empirikos, meaning experience, can be divided to en and peira, in and trial, experience in trial.