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HUMA01 Final Exam Study Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Petit

HUMA01H3 F EXAM STUDY NOTES THE UNIVERSTY, KNOWLEDGE, AND EPISTEMOLOGY -Aquabounty Technology combined portion of gene to protect ocean fish from freezing and transplanted it into growth gene of Chinook Salmon , and transferred it to North American Salmon eggs to produce fast growing salmon intended for consumption What is the University: repository of information & place where knowledge gets made -in a dynamic relation, can’t have one without the other, can’t have teaching without research What is knowledge? Not information, but info processed through thinking human brain OED-expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; theoretical or practical understanding of a subject PLATO- JTB Knowledge is produced by humans, made in two broad ways (Empirical vs. Speculative Analytic/Critical Epistemology – branch of philosophy concerned with nature and scope of knowledge Human Knowledge divided into: Empirical Sciences & Humanities Empirical into: Natural Sciences (bio, chem., physics) Social Sciences (anthro, econ, socio) Humanities include Philosophy, Lit, Arts Empirical vs. Speculative ways of thinking Etymology: the study of word origins Empirical: from empirikos, meaning experience, can be divided to en and peira, in and trial, experience in trial Speculative: from spekulatus, to look at; Theoretical What we get from Humanities: critical thinking, greater understanding of world, training of imagination Try to provide systematic clear account of what is deemed important in the world Awareness Test (Moonwalking Bear) Optical Illusion (Chaplin Mask) Perception Test (line length) REPRESENTATION, IDEOLOGY, HEGEMONY McGurk Effect (Ba Fa, image influence how we hear the sound) History is empirical and ideological (WWF ad, 911, Tsunami, Conserve planet) Scholars in humanities study representation and issues of representations Representation: Social process of making meaning by making signs stand for something Signs are Text, Image, and Sound -To Represent means to stand in for something (GaGa rally against don’t ask don’t tell policy) -Representations always partial (Charlie Brooker – How to Report the News) -Always issue of power and control in representations, ALWAYS ask who is responsible for representation and what is the agenda To what extent are representations of groups typical of how groups are in society, in what way are all representations stereotypes (Google muslim terrorist) Representations are active in process of creating and analyzing them, they convey ideas, they are Ideological Ideological – body of doctrine, myth, belief, that guides individual, social movement, institution, class or large group a body of ideas that reflects the beliefs and interests of a nation, political system, etc and underlies political action Ideology: sets of ideas which give some account of social world, usually partial and selective, relationship of these ideas or values to the ways in which power is distributed socially the way that such values are usually posed as natural, obvious and common sense rather than socially produced Do Representations reflect reality or create the reality we perceive Hegemony: leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation Crying Indian commercial by Keep America Beautiful- only to place responsibility on consumers not manufactuers for litter SIGNS, SEMIOTICS, DISCOURSE MadV OneWorld video, Guy Fawkes as a symbol, movie, mask, comic, Anonymous Writing is Technology(Ong), Literacy is Hegemonic; imperious, domineering, arrogant, overbearing Interiorized writing to the point we cannot separate it from ourselves or recognize its influence, without writing literate mind would not and could not think as it does even when composing oral speech Sound and Orality: sound is fleeting, oral culture rely on formulaic constructions easy to remember, thinking kept close to human life world, personalizes knowledge, needs to be continually repeated Text and Literacy: intrusion into life world, foreign, inhuman(establishes outside of the mind), unresponsive(words can’t talk back, always the same) Falsifies, destroys memory Ong compares Plato Critique of writing to be same as view of computers or any new technology Calculator, Cell, Google, GPS, Social Network, Email Ironies: Writing responsible for Plato’s critique in existence, text though dead revived by limitless number of living reader, and since interpretation open, countless convos Writing is technology, is not mere exterior aid, interior transform of consciousness Properly interiorized does not degrade, b
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