EESA10 Cumulative Exam Notes

33 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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Chen 1EESA10 Human Health and the Environment Lecture One Air PollutionSince the beginning of time we have had air pollutantsOne event that happened in 1952 the London Smog o Relatively cold ten days of December 23 degrees celcius o London needed heat heating usually used coals soft coals sulfuric gasses were released at the time air was stagnant there was no wind the oxidation of the sulfuric gasses created smogo Sulfuric acids are soluble in the water hurt the breathing system of the people in London o Smoke and sulfur dioxide is responsible for the large amounts of deaths during that time period o Landmark of air pollution not much of awareness for air pollution following this event the government placed a lot of attention in making proper policies in regulating the amount of gasses in the atmosphere o Significant amount of money invested in cleaner sources of energy than coal o The termperatures rose the wind started blowing and the sulfuric acids were blown away o Air is much less populated this event was the catalyst of efforts in developing countries o We are in much better shape today than we were o Toronto still has air pollution but in comparison to other cities in Canada we are not the worst o Hamiltonsteel industry Indonesian Fires 1997 o South Indonesia common practice in tropical areas called slash and burn to clear the land for agriculture they burn tropical forests through controlled fire monsoons arrive every year and basically extinguish the fires the land is pretty fertile for a couple of years o In 1997 the monsoons were late and there was nothing for a long period of time to extinguish the fires naturally the fires reached tremendous sizes and damaged an area approximately the side of the US tremendous amount of carbon dioxide ash and other gasses o Big cloud above this part of the world transported on a very long distance one commercial airplane crashed due to the poor visibility o The monsoons arrived and the fires were finally put outAirborne Hazards o Outdoor air pollutionPlanet earth copes pretty well with this kind of pollutionSources human sources stationary human sources mobile natural resources volcanoes ectCarbon monoxide Sulfur oxide nitrogen oxide carbon dioxide Water droplets mix with primary air pollutants to produce secondary air pollutants o Health Effects of Outdoor Air PollutionAsthma is more prevalent in highly polluted areasDifficulties in breathingPrevalence in US increased 34Chronic bronchitis occurs when an excessive amount of mucus is produced in bronchi which results in a lasting cough exposure to sulfuric acidsPulmonary emphysema weaking of the wall of alveoli they become enlarged and lose their resilience nitric acids are most likely responsible for that o Seven Common Outdoor Air Pollutants Chen 2 Particulate matter particles liquid or solid in air soot or water droplets can be big or small more focused now on small particles smaller than 25 micromes especially damaging to upper airways sources inclue demolition very small particulate matter can fly long distances whereas big ones settle downsome are formed in the air in chemical reactions produced in the air itself and become dangerous ex SaltCarbon monoxide if you are exposed to CO you will not know until its too late very easy to cause deathhemoglobin has a much higher affinity for carbon monoxide than oxygen if the concentration of carbon monoxide is higher than the oxygen hemoglobin will carry CO to all the organ systems and blood throughout the entire bodyNitrogen oxides result of combustion process product of internal engine burning cars and traffic distributed furthertransported very long distances gasses that are produced here can be transported to the Boreal forests in Ontario a global problem not just a local problem burning of the coal in China 13 of the worlds sources of coal affects us as well dissolve in the water and form liquid particles and solid particles in the air not that soluble in water so it can travel in the respiratory airways for longer period of times can damage lungs more than sulfuric acidsSulfuric acids are soluble in water so it damages more of the upper airways burning of coal andVOC Volatile organix compound very smelly chemicals evaporate at room temperature 28 degrees celcius used in industry but contribute to photochemical smogLead metal vehicles and industrial sources leaded gasoline in the past released in gasses from vehicles and these positives settle in the ground vegetables less problems today because there are no commercially produced leaded gasoline lead affects mental development of children lower iqs disabilities o Ozone 03Ozone in the stratosphere is good Ozone however bad ozone is on theground level during the day when the traffic is at its peak and sunlight is at its peak more ozone the amount of ozone depends on the season and depends on the timeCan damage lungs and small airways similar to nitric acids not that soluble in the water so damages lungs more than sulfuric acids o Smog smokefogPhotochemical smog DONT NEED TO KNOW THE CHEMICAL FORMULAS produced by the traffic and corbon dioxidehydrocarbons volatile organic compunds produces nitrogen dioxide one oxygen is releasedSulfurous smog compression of the cold o Indoor air pollutionWe rely on structures that are more airtight nowadays poor ventilation outdoor air cannot exchange with indoor airSources of pollutantsBuilding materials and furnishing paint new fabric new furniture release indoor pollutants asbestos insulation wet or damp carpet furniture made of certain pressed wood products plywood certain adhesives cleaning products and air fresheners personal care and hobbiesCooking burning of toast Teflon if burned dry releases different types of gassesSix common indoor air pollutants Chen 3o Asbestos in relatively older buildings pretty much safe until disturbed very long fibres heat resistant heat insulation doesnt dissolve in water cannot be broken down extremely stable very resistant only becomes smaller and smaller occupational exposure creates scar like tissues in the lungso Formaldehyde building materialso Mold anywhere you have moisture increase in relative humidity warm inside cold outside the moisture in the air will condense on the walls inunder wallpaper below carpet completely undiscovered fungry release of irritants allergens and pungent smell o Secondhand Smoke causes cancer children are the most vulnerable thirdhand smoke toxic compounds get attached to clothes nails hair can get released later ono Radon Gas product of the breakdown of uranium in the soil can enter the building through foundation can build in basements and in groundwater quickly evaporates from the water and is released in to the air which is the main cause of pollutants construction building blocks dangers for babies and young children radon gas detector to measure the concentration of the chemical o Air Dust heating and coolingforced air system dust particles pollen or other debris duct cleanings should happen every 3 years living organisms in the dust viruses and bacteria can be transferred this year Lecture 2 Waterborne Hazards and Human Health Assignment One Will be posted next week there will be some trick questionsLiquid natural capitolThe earth is water planetWater covers 21 of Earths surfaceMostly salty waterNo species can do without waterSculpting the Earths surfaceModerating climate near shores of big water bodies there are milder climatesRemoving and diluting wastes and pollutants water is important for distribution of pollutants sometimes it is good that water dilutes the pollutantsWorlds ProblemsQuantity of waterQuality of waterWithdrawaltotal amount of water removed from a river lake or aquifer ground water for any purposeSome may be returned to the source for reuse lots of water is lost in the water cycleUse about 54 of the worlds reliable runoff of surface water and could be using 7090 by 2025How much fresh water is available
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