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GGRA03H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: The City In History, Public Health Act 1875, Le Corbusier


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA03H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen
Study Guide
Final

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GGRA03: Cities & Environments
Week 1- Reading Notes (January 7, 2014)
Shlomo Angel- Chapter 6
- Urbanization: The gradual concentration of the human population in towns, cities, and
metropolitan areas
- Urbanization can be divided into 3 periods:
- 1. 10000 BC – 1800. World population: 1 million >>>
It concentrated on agriculture and animal domestication.
Only 10% of population lived in urban areas, which had walls.
Others concentrated on farming.
People had more offspring with less skills.
Transportation: Walking
Health: Life expectancy of 20-30, infectious diseases,
malnutrition, maternity complications, and epidemics
maintained population.
- 2. 1800 – 2010. Urban growth accelerated.
50% of population lived in cities & urban population growth rates
declined in all world regions.
Transportation: Omnibus, horsecar on rails, cable car, electric
trolley  car, bus, and faster train
Health: Life expectancy of 50, nutrition improvements,
and
personal hygiene increased population.
- 3. 2010 – Present. Expected to end at century’s end.
Population expected to be 9 – 11 billion.
75 – 80% of population will live in urban areas.
People have less offspring with more skills
Transportation: Methods besides walking (even to close places)
Health: Life expectancy increased to 50+, fertility rate & infant
mortality decreased.
Globaia Climate Change Video  http://vimeo.com/75038049
- We’ve created a globally interconnected society.
- Population, production, & consumption have increased.
- CO2 & GHG levels are increasing & the climate system is changing.
- Humans are the dominant cause of warming in the past 60 years.
- If emissions continue to rise the Arctic’s sea ice will melt sooner than expected.
- Dry regions will become drying and wet regions will become wetter.
- Monsoon seasons will become longer & downpours will intensify.
- Ocean acidity has increased 26% since the Industrial Revolution.
UN Habitat: Cities & Climate Change  http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?
typeid=19&catid=550&cid=9967
- Hundreds of millions of people in urban areas across the world will be affected by rising sea
levels, increased precipitation (in some areas), inland floods, more frequent and stronger
cyclones and storms, periods of more extreme heat and cold and the spread of diseases
- Climate change may also negatively impact infrastructure and worsen access to basic urban
services and quality of life in cities.
- Cities are also major contributors to climate change, producing more than 60% of all carbon
dioxide and significant amounts of other greenhouse gas emissions, mainly through energy
generation, vehicles, industry and biomass use.
- Many major coastal cities with populations of more than 10 million people are under threat: Rio de
Janeiro, Los Angeles, New York, Lagos, Cairo, Mumbai, Shanghai, and Tokyo.

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- By 2030, when three-quarters of the world's population is expected to be urban, the biggest cities
will be found in the developing world’s medium-sized cities such as Esmeraldas, Ecuador;
Maputo, Mozambique; and Sorsogon, Philippines
- They face the largest population growth and increasing vulnerability to climate change-related
impacts over the coming decades.
- UN-HABITAT's Cities and Climate Change Initiative (CCCI) targets these cities in particular.
- In these cities the most affected populations are the urban poor – i.e. slum dwellers in developing
countries – along beaches vulnerable to flooding, by railways, on slopes prone to landfalls, near
polluted grounds, on desertified land and in shaky structures vulnerable to earthquakes, and
fatality risks are greater given modern land use policies and rapid urbanisation.
- However, cities are also places of innovation and efficiency when properly planned, capacitated
and managed through the appropriate governance structures.
- Together with their local authorities they have the potential to diminish the causes of climate
change (mitigation) and effectively protect themselves from its impacts (adaptation).
Week 2- Reading Notes (January 14, 2014)
Spiro Kostof- The City In History
- Diffusion theory- Cities originated in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BC & spread to
China & Greece
- Towns existed 2-3000 years before Mesopotamia.
- Jericho had a stone wall & Ain Ghazal, which was 3x larger than Jericho, had 2500-3000 people
in 30 acres. It included luxury goods and small objects which may have been currency tokens.
- Other early towns had public shrines, shops, and streets.
- The first true cities emerged in the mudplains between Tigris & Euphrates around 3500 BC.
- Other cities were created and abandoned suddenly after a millennium later.
- Settlements by China’s rivers occurred
- Africa had native, pre-European urbanized towns.
- There is unevenness in urban development over space & time.
- China didn’t concentrate on cities, they focused on agricultural and peasant villages instead.
- Greece and Rome were the opposite of China & they valued their newer towns
- Town = agent of defense, domination, & a holy place
- City = authority, power, political stability
- Japan’s 1st cities developed between the 4th & 6th century AD created by palaces
- Cities were usually planned by kings, because starting from scratch allowed rulers to design an
ideal population for the city and forced civilians to obey
- In many readings including the Old Testament and Noah’s Ark, God opposed cities.
- Old Testament: Cain created a city while God created the Garden of Eden.
- Noah’s Ark: God destroyed the city with a flood.
- Aristotle: “Man is a political creature suited by nature to live in a city.”
- Good people live in a city and are banished from it if they are immoral.
- L. Wirth: “A city is a relatively large, dense, & permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous
individuals”
- Mumford: “A city is a point of maximum concentration for the power & culture of a community”
- Characteristics of cities: A) Energized crowding. B) Urban clusters. C) Physical circumscription.
D) Differentiation of uses. E) Urban resources. F) Written Records. G) City & countryside. H)
Monumental framework. I) Buildings & people.
- A) Cities are places where a certain energized crowding of people takes place, focusing on
settlement density rather than size & numbers
- B) Cities come in clusters and are accompanied by eachother
- C) Cities are places that have physical, material, and symbolic characteristics that separate those
who belong to urban order and those who don’t.
- D) Cities have specialized differentiation of work where people are priests, craftsmen, or soldiers
- Wealth is also not equally distributed among the citizens & creates social hierarchies where the
rich are more powerful than the poor and some people are more important than others.

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- There are also different ethnic groups, races, religions.
- E) Cities are favored by source of income like trade, agriculture, surplus food, a physical resource
like metal or bath spring, geomorphic resource like natural harbor, or human resource like a king.
- F) Cities rely on written records to tally goods, laws govern community & establish title to property
- G) Cities are places that are intimately engaged with their countryside, that have a territory that
feeds them and which they protect and provide services for.
- H) Cities are distinguished by monuments like public buildings that give the city scale and the
citizenry landmarks of a common identity.
- I) Cities are made up of buildings & people
- The creation of cities is not a thing of the past; cities are currently also being created as well
Week 3- Reading Notes (January 21, 2014)
Peter Hall- The City of Dreadful Night
- 1880- Victorian poet James Thomson wrote a poem named “The City of Dreadful Night”
- Mearns states that the courts of London, Liverpool, and Manchester were disgusting
- The people lived in horrible conditions (in the same rooms as pigs and their dead children)
- There were brothels filled with young girls not older than 12 & slums filled with poor people
- People were too poor to take the train and work in the suburbs or move, and they were too
unhealthy to work
- Plague spots: London rookeries where disease & crime flourished & contaminated the rest
of the city
- Some slum dwellers were decent and desperate people who had to live where they did because
they depended on labor & were too poor to live far away from the chance of work.
- 1913- 40% of the working class in Westminster said they had to live close to their work
- Rookeries were torn down and replaced with model tenement blocks, which were hated for their
overbuilding, lack of greenery, grim facades and petty regulations
- The British Royal commission stated that there’s been improvement of house conditions
compared to 30 years ago but that overcrowding is still a problem
- London- One family of eight in a room was typical
- appy dossers: Homeless people
- Rent rose but wages did not
- 1880s- London underwent mini-Haussmannization
- The corrupt government was unwilling to help
- 1875- Public Health Act outside London
- Royal Commission's recommendations, rather than adding new powers, ensured local
authorities used existing ones.
- Torrens Act (The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Act, 1868) allowed local authorities to build
new dwellings for the laboring classes
- Cross Act (The Artisans' and Labourers'" Dwellings Improvement Act, 1875) allowed them to
clear large areas of unfit housing and to rehouse the inhabitants
- Lord Shaftesbury's ancient 1851 Lodging Houses Act included separate dwellings and cottages
for working classes
- Urban male working class suffered effects of the major depression in trade & industry
- 1880s- Throughout the cities and above all throughout London, there was a spirit of cataclysmic,
even violent change in the air.
- 1886 & 1887- Respectable citizens of Liverpool began to complain that they were being
terrorized by gangs
- The High Rip Gang went on a wild rampage through the streets of Liverpool, attacking men,
women, and children with knives and slingshot, and stealing from pawnshops.
- They were flogged/lashed as punishment
- For weeks, unemployed workers and socialist intellectuals held meetings in Trafalgar Square.
- Monday, February 8- Huge meeting was met by a force of over 600 police officers.
- They were breaking windows and looting shops.
- Charles Booth, a Liverpool shipowner, stated that the poor of East London were 314,000 or over
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