GGRC02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Measles, Scottish People, Institutional Racism

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12 Feb 2011
Session 1: Geography and the seven billion people question
Population numbers exponentially increased since year 1 mainly due to more food
and technology, industrial revolution
World growth rate begins to decrease in 2000
Population Year 1 AD China and India most populated
Population Year 1500 AD Spanish and Portuguese shipped to America and
explored these regions and populated more in Southern America
Population Year 1900 AD:
oNorth America was now known because more people immigrated
oAfrica was shrinking because of slavery and colonization and health problems
oIndustrial revolution not only took place in Europe but also in North America
Population Year 2000 AD:
oMajor population increase in South America
oPopulation in Europe decreased due to WWI and WWII
oThe proportion of South Asia and East Asia didnt change at all over the last
2000 years, it is still one of the most populated areas in the world
oIncrease in population in Africa, especially in Northern parts of Africa
oInterestingly, the European proportion of the world population has declined
since 1900s where it was 15%, and in 1960 it was 11%, and in 2000 it was
only 6% of world population
Population Year 2050 AD:
oWill be projected that there will be 9 billion people living on this Earth, 32%
will be living in North, South Africa and South and East Asia
oGrowth will decline further
Population Year 2300 AD:
o9 billion people
oPopulation might not grow further than this
oThe most increase is projected in Africa, and South and Eastern Asia will
remain the most populated areas in the world
Life expectancy
oLife expectancy is going up per person, and income is going up each year as
oEpidemics and war are two main factors why life expectancy decreased over
the years
World migration
oInternal and international migration
oAt the moment, it is estimated nearly 190 million people, about three percent
of the worlds population, lived outside their country of birth
oUS and Spain are among the countries that get the most migrants
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oMexico and China are countries where most people are leaving
World population density
oPopulation density is not evenly distributed over the world, and not even in
the countries
oConsequences of this might be regional conflict
Session 2: Malthusdawning: Are we too many?
Theories and idea on how population growth will benefit or not benefit the world
Ideas will follow us through most or all of lectures in future
Current World Population
More and more people are living on this planet
World population growth rate
However, the world population growth rate is declining
We will become less more over the years
World population growth rate = surplus of population in comparison to years in time
Population growth rate = pop t2 pop t0/ pop t1
World population throughout history
We will get less more on this planet
Is this a benefit or catastrophe?
Population densities 2010
Population density = total population / area
Canada has the least dense population among these countries
Although there are other countries that are really rich (i.e. Netherlands), they deal
with more people, so its one of the most highly dense country in the world
India is big country and quite a lot of people per square kilometres live
The media covers this topic on a daily basis food prices to rocket as population
We were concerned about population growth in 1970s and 80s, and we should still be
concerned nowadays
Malthus prophecy
There are other theories out there that state the world cant hold that many people
When Malthus made his prophecy, there were about 3 billion people worldwide and
he was concerned about this state especially when he looked at the food production
and the technologies out there to cater these populations
Malthus thought in late 18th century that these two statements he made were fixed
laws of nature:
1.People have to eat fixed law
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2.We like to procreate and have sex and get children
Malthus prophecy (contd)
Geometrical ratio = population is increasing exponentially
Arithmetical ratio = population would increase in a linear way
Growth of food will grow in a linear way
Population growth will increase exponentially
Where growth of food and population growth meets = carrying capacity (when
population growth will be higher than production of food, which will be final stage of
population growth and there will not be any growth further than that)
These people think there is no limit to growth, and resources will be there for people
on Earth
These people are called Cornucopians according to Greek term, which defines
plenty of food he/she needs
Population doctrines
These are at the moment the most powerful ones
Doctrine = qualified collection of thinking, not a theory as such because it doesnt
have to be scientific
Most well known book of genesis food needed to be multiplied
oPositive population doctrines applied about 1300 BC
Confucius population growth is good, but governments should balance on
population and resources
oHe might have experience some cases where there are overpopulation and the
resources (food) wasnt enough for those people, but he thought there may be
food in the future
Plato population quality is more important than quantity
oEmphasis should be on population stability
oSaw the density in cities in Greece and thought that it might be more
valuable to draw on the quality on the population (develop thinking in
education) and the quantity
Cicero Roman emperor said population growth is necessary to maintain Roman
oThese doctrines had an underlying belief system
St. Augustine abstinence is the preferred way to deal with human sexuality
oSecond best is to marry and to procreate
oHis doctrine was to stop making kids only if you have to marry then thats ok,
but the best is to not have children
St. Thomas Aquinas abstinence is not better than marriage and procreation
oCountered St. Augustine and said well if you want to marry and get children,
that is better than not getting children
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