University of Toronto Scarborough
Final Examination 2011
Time: Two Hours No Aids Value: 35%
Answer two questions from Part A and five from Part B.
Part A: Essays
(70% of total exam grade)
1. Discuss the interrelationship between African environments, disease, and human
activities over the last 120 years, identifying key moments in history.
2. African women and their families have borne the brunt of colonization and then
the instability and lack of development in postcolonial Africa. Do you agree?
3. How did Europe rule Africa during the colonial period? What were the basic
systems and techniques of control? Were there significant differences between the
main imperial powers?
4. Nationalist leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Patrice Lumumba of the
Congo and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania emerged through different colonial
experiences and developed distinctive philosophical and political styles. What
problems did they have to face? Compare and contrast their personal approaches to
national and Pan-African liberation struggles.
5. Is there any connection between the colonial legacy, the crisis of the state in
postcolonial Africa, and the numerous civil wars that have impeded developme