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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: World Health Organization, Health Promotion, Environmental Engineering

Health Studies
Course Code
Suzanne Sicchia
Study Guide

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Week 13 Health Studies Readings
Health Promotion
health promotion conjures up notions of media campaigns, handing out leaflets and
generally informing people about the do’s and don’ts of health related lifestyle behaviour
Origins of Health Promotions
health promotion is often associated and sometimes interchanged with the term public
the origins of the two are often paralleled and intertwined
what Webster and French refer to as ‘co-ordinated community action to ensure a better
life’ have existed for millennia and represent ideas of both public health and health
the first public health manifesto was developed in Manchester, in 1796, as a result of the
industrial revolution upon the workforce
the ill health of the people were attributed to the social and economic factors
public health has been categorized in distinct phases that have shaped our perceptions of
health promotion and public health today:
the sanitary phase (of 1840 onwards), focuses on environmental engineering to
provide clean water, sewage, and improve housing and working conditions
the personal hygiene phase (of 1910 onwards), emphasized education about
cleanliness, personal behaviour, and personal responsibility
the therapeutic phase (of 1930 onwards), focused on the medicalization of
public health, including preventative biomedical measures such as vaccines, and
treatment of ill health
the ‘new public health’ phase (of 1970s onwards), attempted to revitalize public
health and health promotion professions, responding to the key issues of the day
the origins of health promotion and public health are important for several reasons:
1. dominance of public health practice by public health media helped regain the power that
was relinquished to health care
2. this affects the type of work that is done for health improvement
3. the health promotion workforce has largely been rebranded as public health within
primary care trusts
4. the incoming coalition government continues to threaten both public health and health
promotion and plans to rerun as a model of lifestyle regulate we saw in the
personal hygiene phase rather than tackling social and economic determinants of health
the term health promotion has a more global acceptance and is widely enshrined in the
focus of World Health Organization
Tools for understanding health promotion
models can be defined as schematic descriptions of a system, theory, or phenomenon that
accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its

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a good model will provide descriptions of how elements are related and attempt to
provide theoretical understanding
there are two different types of models:
iconic models - simple representation of what something looks like in reality and
often translates well to practical situations
analogic models - tend to be underpinned by theoretical ideas and are not always
based on what currently exists
Tannahill’s 1985 model
Tannahill developed this model to act as a unifying construct in counter part to
the debates regarding whether or not health promotion and prevention of ill health are the
same thing
this model is intended to be useful for ‘planning and doing health promotion’
this model has 3 overlapping spheres (prevention, health education, and health
preventative activities are designed to reduce or avoid risks of diseases, such as
vaccinations;this would overlap with health education with the education of smoking
cessation advice, and this would overlap with health protection with legislations to limit
tobacco smoking in public places
education involves communication to enhance health and well being, while preventing ill
health influencing beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes , such as developing life skills such
as assertiveness so that young women can negotiate safer sex; this would overlap with
health protection if legislative action and lobbying
protection involves safeguarding populations through legislative, fiscal, or social
measure, such as safety legislations in the workplace
Beattie’s 1991 model:
one of the most widely cited models
underpins health promotion practice
quadrant structure, that follows the mode of action on a continuum (hard to explain,
check page 157 of textbook)
imagine a compass, the upper quadrant going up and down refers to authoritativeness,
where as the lower quadrant refers to the negotiated, the left end of the spectrum refer to
individual action and responsibility, and the right end refers to collective responsibility
and action
each quadrant equates to the 4 different approaches within health promotion
health persuasion utilizes action that is aimed at individual that are led by practitioners
for example; a doctor giving advice about excessive alcohol consumption to a
young individual who has spent a night in the E.R. after a night out
personal counselling is also aimed at individuals, but the issues are client-defined, client-
led, and focus on personal development
for example; a doctor helping a young individual develop skills and opportunities
to help relieve boredom so they do not need to turn to drinking
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