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Final

Exam review notes part 2

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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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DiseaseMalariaMeasles (rubeola, red measles, morbilli,
hashbah)Small Pox
Historical
contex
It is an old disease
Hippocrates has mentioned it
12th century Spain and Russia
14th century England
15th century new world
1800s worldwide
19th century Mississippi valley, NE US,
tropics
Dante mentions it in writing (1265-
1321)
William Shakespear in writing (1564-
1616)
Carl Louis Alphonse Laveran (1880)
oObserved black-brown malaria
pigment in infected blood cells
1989 Robert Koch –argued that
malaria may be due to mosquitoes but was
not successful
Ronald Ross & Patrick Mason
oDiscovered oocysts in stomachs of
anopheles
oDiscovered the infectious stage in
the mosquito salivary glands
Giovanni Battista Grassi reported the
Anopheles claviger as human carrier
Earliest description attributed to
Rhazes (900 AD) clinically
separated smallpox and measles -
believed that both proceeded from
same cause
Prevailing theory - red rash the
mother's menstrual blood -child rids
'poison
Origins of term measles - misellus’
or misella i.e. miserable
1670 - Thomas Sydenham's
observed clinical features;
description of his son's attack
Clearly separate measles from
smallpox, and recognized
complications, such as cancrum oris
and encephalitis
1757 - Francis Home demonstrated
the infective nature - he succeeded
in transmitting measles using blood
from an infected child
Peter Ludwig Panum (1820
1885)
oSent by Danish government
to investigate an epidemic in
Faeroe Isles in1846
oPanum conducted the first
epidemiological study
1.Rash appears 12 to 14 days after
contact with an infected person
2.Infectivity is greatest 3 to 4 days
before the rash appears
3.Contagious nature of disease
respiratory route of
transmission
4.Life-long immunity
Old world and an indiscriminate
disease
10,000 BC - first agricultural
settlements in NE Africa and spread
to India by means of ancient
Egyptian merchants
Earliest evidence on Egyptian
mummies (1570–1085 BC)
-Pharaoh Ramses V (died
1156 BC) pockmarks
1122 BC Described in China and is
mentioned in ancient texts of India
100AD Plague of Antonine
Europe - frequent epidemic during
the Middle Ages
16th century became a serious
disease in England and Europe
Plague of Antonine
New world in the 16th century - fall
of the empires of the Aztecs and the
Incas
Contributed to the settlement of N
America by the French & English
(1617)
Could be used as Biological warfare
French-Indian War (1754–1767) -
deliberate use of smallpox
Slave trade
www.notesolution.com
1963 Enders (1897 1985)
isolated virus and produced vaccine
EpidemiologyAccording to WHO in 2006:
oKilled >half the people who
ever lived on this planet
o300 500 M cases of malaria/year
o2 3 M deaths annually
oMajority : aged 5 years or younger
oCurrently endemic in over 100
countries
Falciparum and vivax = 95% of infections
2008: 2.37 B at risk of P. falciparum
Came to Canada in 1929 (worst in
1995-96)
Pre-vaccine period -
approximately 130 million cases
and 7-8 million measles-related
deaths annually worldwide (child
Virus still affects 50 M people
annually and causes more than 1
million deaths
Highest incidence in developing
countries & naive population
However, it still occurs
infrequently in industrialized
Acute child fatality rate in
industrialized nations is 0.1- 0.2%
2-10% fatality rate for children in
the developing world
Amounts to 1.5 M deaths
annually in developing countries
18th-century - 60 million
Europeans
Case-fatality rate varied from
20% to 60%
1/3 of the survivors became blind
Acquired immunity - disease of
childhood
Epidemic every 5-15 years
Etiology4 species plasmodium are specific to
humans:
1. Plasmodium falciparum (Principally
in Africa)(high risk of a fatal infection)
cause cerebral malaria, malignant tertian
malaria
2. Plasmodium vivax (malignant tertian
malaria)
3. Plasmodium ovale Both P. vivax and P.
ovale can cause relapse after clinical recovery
4. Plasmodium malariae (quartan
malaria may occur after many years know
as -recrudescence)
Family: paramyxoviridae, Genus:
morbillivirus Genus - Orthopoxvirus, family
Poxviridae
Common name - variola virus
Orthopoxvirus genus also includes
the monkeypox, cowpox, camelpox,
chickenpox, and ectromelia
(mousepox) viruses
Variola minor - mortality rate
is less than 2% in unvaccinated
persons
variola major mortality rate
is 3% in vaccinated individuals and
30% - 50% in unvaccinated
Hemorrhagic smallpox or black
pox
-Malignant and hemorrhagic
forms of variola major develop in
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Description
Disease Malaria Measles ( rubeola, red measles, morbilli, Small Pox hashba) Historical It is an old disease Earliest description attributed to Old world and an indiscriminate contex Hippocrates has mentioned it Rhazes (900 AD) clinically disease 12 century Spain and Russia th separated smallpox and measles - 10,000 BC - first agricultural 14 century England believed that both proceeded from settlements in NE Africa and spread 15 century new world same cause to India by means of ancient 1800s worldwide Egyptian merchants th Prevailing theory - red rash the 19 century Mississippi valley, NE US, mothers menstrual blood -child ris Earliest evidence on Egyptian tropics poison mummies (15701085 BC) Dante mentions it in writing (1265- Origins of term measles - misellus 1321) - Pharaoh Ramses V (died William Shakespear in writing (1564- or misella i.e. miserable 1156 BC) pockmarks 1616) 1670 -Thomas Sydenhams 1122 BC Described in China and is Carl Louis Alphonse Laveran (1880) observed clinical features; o Observed black-brown malaria mentioned in ancient texts of India description of his sons attack 100AD Plague of Antonine pigment in infected blood cells Clearly separate measles from 1989 Robert Koch argued that smallpox, and recognized Europe - frequent epidemic during malaria may be due to mosquitoes but was complications, such as cancrum oris the Middle Ages not successful 16 century became a serious and encephalitis disease in England and Europe Ronald Ross & Patrick Mason 1757 - Francis Home demonstrated o Discovered oocysts in stomachs of Plague of Antonine anopheles the infective nature - he succeede New world in the 16 century - fall in transmitting measles using blood o Discovered the infectious stage in from an infected child of the empires of the Aztecs and the the mosquito salivary glands Incas Giovanni Battista Grassi reported the Contributed to the settlement of N Peter Ludwig Panum (1820 America by the French & English Anopheles claviger as human carrier 1885) o Sent by Danish government (1617) Could be used as Biological warfare to investigate an epidemic in Faeroe Isles in1846 French-Indian War (17541767) - o Panum conducted the first deliberate use of smallpox epidemiological study Slave trade 1. Rash appears 12 to 14 days after contact with an infected person 2. Infectivity is greatest 3 to 4 days before the rash appears 3. Contagious nature of disease respiratory route of transmission 4. Life-long immunity www.notesolution.com
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