MDSA01H3 Key Concepts (Chapter 6-12).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Gray Graffam

MDSA01H3 Key Concepts (Chapter 6-12) Chapter 6 American Dream- the unquestioned assumption that hard work leads to success, and success is measured in terms of economic wealth Assimilation- the process of “white-washing” ethnic diversity by de-historicizing cultural difference Conspicuous Consumption- the belief that one can attain the kind of happiness or completeness often conceived of as upper class through the purchase of material goods and services Cultural Studies- an interdisciplinary approach to the study of culture that seeks to understand how relations of power are enacted, reified, and challenged Culture- the collection of artifacts, beliefs, and practices of a particular historical event, supported by symbolic systems and directed by ideology Difference- the depiction of others who are subordinate to, but a source of pleasure to American US tourists and consumers Doxa- cultural knowledge that is accepted by common sense; the realm of the take-for-granted Exclusion- the symbolic annihilation of various cultural groups through erasure and under- representation Exoticism- images of foreign lands or bodies that romanticize or mystify other cultures Hegemony- the process in which one ideology subverts other competing ideologies and gains cultural dominance Ideology- the system of ideas that unconsciously shapes and constrains our beliefs and behaviours Interpellation- the process by which individuals are turned into ideological subjects Myth- a sacred story or “type of speech” that reaffirms and reproduces ideology in relation to an object Othering- the process of marginalizing minorities by defining them in relationship to the majority, which is assumed to be the norm Stereotyping- the misleading and reductionistic representation of a cultural group Structure of feeling- the sum of subtle and nuanced aspects of a historical culture, those aspects are not obviously or completely captured in the artifacts of a society Token- the exception of a social rule that affirms the correctness of an ideology Chapter 7 Apparatus Theory- an early psychoanalytic approach to film that claims the actual environment and machinery of the cinema activates a number of desires within spectators Desire- an appetite for something that promises enjoyment, satisfaction, and pleasure in its attainment Fantasy- a mental representation of conscious and unconscious wish fulfillment Fetishism- the psychic representation of an object or person as a source of sexual pleasure Imaginary- the pre-linguistic realm (similar to the Freudian pre-Oedipal, pleasurable stage) where the infant feels whole and connected to everything via the bond to the mother Lack- the psychoanalytic concept that describes the gap separating Imaginary pleasures and lived reality Male gaze- the cinema’s frequent structuring of women as objects coded for strong visual and erotic impact Oedipus complex- a mental structuring that takes the raw libidinal materials of the oral, anal, and phallus stages and split them into conscious and unconscious desires Phallocentrism- a social condition in which images or representations of the penis carries connotations of power and dominance Pleasure principle- the uncontrollable human drive to satisfy desire Reality principle- the constant curbing of desires according to possibilities, laws, and social convention Repression- the process of mentally containing our desires below conscious recognition or expression Scopophilia- the pleasure that comes from the process of looking Symbolic- the realm or the cultural plane of language, social meanings, and relationships Unconscious- the structure within the psyche (i.e. mind) that keeps trying to make its desires felt while remaining continuously repressed Voyeurism- the process of experiencing pleasure by watching a desired object or person from a distance Chapter 8 essentialism- the belief that cultural distinctions such as masculinity and femininity are inherent, universal, and natural Feminism- the political project that explores the diverse ways men and women are socially empowered or disempowered Gender- the culturally, constructed distinction (tastes, roles, activities, etc.) between men and women Glass ceiling- an invisible barrier sustained by gendered workplace policies that restricts women from being promoted equally to men Patriarchy- a system of social relationships in which women’s interests are subordina
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