In non-democratic countries and in democratic countries with dominant party. clapham (pp 56-57) describes how clientelism often spread after independence. community cultural norms; what people expect from their officials! maintains salience of kin not class relationship. way of keeping loyalty (or peace) of poor without spending many resources. way to get out the vote, maintain loyalty of other elites (van de. Walle) or get other good ; may be done by non-state actors (sives) explains patterns of competition that include one large dominant party and many smaller parties. politicians join large party because that party tends to have the most resources they can then allocate. some realize they can have more if they are independent (van de. no incentive to cut deals with other opposition parties resources are controlled by dominant party; or they are unlikely to get any even if they join dominant party.